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Chemical Compound Review

Tamiflu     ethyl(3R,4R,5S)-4-acetamido- 5-amino-3...

Synonyms: Agucort, Tamvir, oseltamivir, oseltamivirum, Tamiflu-Free, ...
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Disease relevance of GS-4104

  • CONCLUSIONS: In these trials, prophylaxis and early treatment with oral oseltamivir were both associated with significant antiviral and clinical effects in experimental human influenza [1].
  • Secondary complications such as bronchitis and sinusitis occurred in 15% of placebo recipients compared with 7% of combined oseltamivir recipients (P = .03) [2].
  • These results indicate that oseltamivir has significant antiviral activity in experimental human influenza B virus infection when used for prophylaxis or early treatment [3].
  • Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies evaluated oral oseltamivir for early treatment (75 or 150 mg twice daily for 5 days) or prevention (75 mg once or twice daily for 7 days) of experimental influenza B virus infection in healthy susceptible adults [3].
  • Selection of influenza virus mutants in experimentally infected volunteers treated with oseltamivir [4].

Psychiatry related information on GS-4104

  • For the treatment of ferrets inoculated with the less pathogenic A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) virus, 10 mg/kg/day of oseltamivir was sufficient to reduce the lethargy of the animals, significantly inhibit inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, and block virus spread to the internal organs [5].

High impact information on GS-4104


Chemical compound and disease context of GS-4104


Biological context of GS-4104


Anatomical context of GS-4104


Associations of GS-4104 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of GS-4104


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GS-4104

  • Cohort eligibility criteria included minimum baseline enrolment duration of 3 months, age of at least 1 year and no influenza vaccination on the date of influenza diagnosis or oseltamivir dispensing [29].
  • Skin reactions in patients with influenza treated with oseltamivir: a retrospective cohort study [29].
  • In contrast, among subjects with an influenzalike illness but without a confirmed influenza infection, the incidence of LRTCs (6.7% vs 5.3%), overall antibiotic use (19.7% vs 19.3%), or hospitalizations (1.7% vs 1.9%) was similar between placebo and oseltamivir recipients, respectively [30].
  • Oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily for 5 days was well tolerated in clinical trials in healthy adults and high-risk patients, with nausea and vomiting being the most commonly reported events [31].
  • Prophylactic oral administration of oseltamivir was effective in reducing the incidence of influenza illness according to pooled data from 2 large placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of healthy nonimmunised volunteers during periods of seasonal influenza activity [32].


  1. Use of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in experimental human influenza: randomized controlled trials for prevention and treatment. Hayden, F.G., Treanor, J.J., Fritz, R.S., Lobo, M., Betts, R.F., Miller, M., Kinnersley, N., Mills, R.G., Ward, P., Straus, S.E. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute influenza: a randomized controlled trial. US Oral Neuraminidase Study Group. Treanor, J.J., Hayden, F.G., Vrooman, P.S., Barbarash, R., Bettis, R., Riff, D., Singh, S., Kinnersley, N., Ward, P., Mills, R.G. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Oral oseltamivir in human experimental influenza B infection. Hayden, F.G., Jennings, L., Robson, R., Schiff, G., Jackson, H., Rana, B., McClelland, G., Ipe, D., Roberts, N., Ward, P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Selection of influenza virus mutants in experimentally infected volunteers treated with oseltamivir. Gubareva, L.V., Kaiser, L., Matrosovich, M.N., Soo-Hoo, Y., Hayden, F.G. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of Oseltamivir Therapy in Ferrets Inoculated with Different Clades of H5N1 Influenza Virus. Govorkova, E.A., Ilyushina, N.A., Boltz, D.A., Douglas, A., Yilmaz, N., Webster, R.G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza. Hayden, F.G., Atmar, R.L., Schilling, M., Johnson, C., Poretz, D., Paar, D., Huson, L., Ward, P., Mills, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Effectiveness of oseltamivir in preventing influenza in household contacts: a randomized controlled trial. Welliver, R., Monto, A.S., Carewicz, O., Schatteman, E., Hassman, M., Hedrick, J., Jackson, H.C., Huson, L., Ward, P., Oxford, J.S. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors. Gubareva, L.V., Kaiser, L., Hayden, F.G. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Neuraminidase sequence analysis and susceptibilities of influenza virus clinical isolates to zanamivir and oseltamivir. McKimm-Breschkin, J., Trivedi, T., Hampson, A., Hay, A., Klimov, A., Tashiro, M., Hayden, F., Zambon, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of GS 4104 as an orally bioavailable prodrug of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4071. Li, W., Escarpe, P.A., Eisenberg, E.J., Cundy, K.C., Sweet, C., Jakeman, K.J., Merson, J., Lew, W., Williams, M., Zhang, L., Kim, C.U., Bischofberger, N., Chen, M.S., Mendel, D.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo influenza virus-inhibitory effects of the cyclopentane neuraminidase inhibitor RJW-270201. Sidwell, R.W., Smee, D.F., Huffman, J.H., Barnard, D.L., Bailey, K.W., Morrey, J.D., Babu, Y.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Penetration of GS4071, a novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitor, into rat bronchoalveolar lining fluid following oral administration of the prodrug GS4104. Eisenberg, E.J., Bidgood, A., Cundy, K.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative activities of oseltamivir and A-322278 in immunocompetent and immunocompromised murine models of influenza virus infection. Ison, M.G., Mishin, V.P., Braciale, T.J., Hayden, F.G., Gubareva, L.V. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the prodrug oseltamivir and its active metabolite Ro 64-0802. He, G., Massarella, J., Ward, P. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Virulence may determine the necessary duration and dosage of oseltamivir treatment for highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/04 influenza virus in mice. Yen, H.L., Monto, A.S., Webster, R.G., Govorkova, E.A. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Prevention and treatment of influenza in high-risk groups: children, pregnant women, immunocompromised hosts, and nursing home residents. Whitley, R.J., Monto, A.S. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Oral administration of a prodrug of the influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4071 protects mice and ferrets against influenza infection. Mendel, D.B., Tai, C.Y., Escarpe, P.A., Li, W., Sidwell, R.W., Huffman, J.H., Sweet, C., Jakeman, K.J., Merson, J., Lacy, S.A., Lew, W., Williams, M.A., Zhang, L., Chen, M.S., Bischofberger, N., Kim, C.U. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Enhanced expression of an alpha2,6-linked sialic acid on MDCK cells improves isolation of human influenza viruses and evaluation of their sensitivity to a neuraminidase inhibitor. Hatakeyama, S., Sakai-Tagawa, Y., Kiso, M., Goto, H., Kawakami, C., Mitamura, K., Sugaya, N., Suzuki, Y., Kawaoka, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Anti-influenza prodrug oseltamivir is activated by carboxylesterase human carboxylesterase 1, and the activation is inhibited by antiplatelet agent clopidogrel. Shi, D., Yang, J., Yang, D., Lecluyse, E.L., Black, C., You, L., Akhlaghi, F., Yan, B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Metabolism of the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor prodrug oseltamivir in the rat. Sweeny, D.J., Lynch, G., Bidgood, A.M., Lew, W., Wang, K.Y., Cundy, K.C. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Management of influenza in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nathan, R.A., Geddes, D., Woodhead, M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Avian influenza virus infections in humans. Wong, S.S., Yuen, K.Y. Chest (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between the oral anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor prodrug oseltamivir and antacids. Snell, P., Oo, C., Dorr, A., Barrett, J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. A point mutation in influenza B neuraminidase confers resistance to peramivir and loss of slow binding. Baum, E.Z., Wagaman, P.C., Ly, L., Turchi, I., Le, J., Bucher, D., Bush, K. Antiviral Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Cooperative anti-influenza activities of respiratory innate immune proteins and neuraminidase inhibitor. White, M.R., Crouch, E., van Eijk, M., Hartshorn, M., Pemberton, L., Tornoe, I., Holmskov, U., Hartshorn, K.L. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Neuraminidase inhibitors reduce nitric oxide production in influenza virus-infected and gamma interferon-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Kacergius, T., Ambrozaitis, A., Deng, Y., Gravenstein, S. Pharmacological reports : PR (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of neuraminidase in lethal synergism between influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. McCullers, J.A., Bartmess, K.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Quantification of the influenza virus load by real-time polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal swabs of patients treated with oseltamivir. Boivin, G., Coulombe, Z., Wat, C. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Skin reactions in patients with influenza treated with oseltamivir: a retrospective cohort study. Nordstrom, B.L., Oh, K., Sacks, S.T., L'Italien, G.J. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Impact of oseltamivir treatment on influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications and hospitalizations. Kaiser, L., Wat, C., Mills, T., Mahoney, P., Ward, P., Hayden, F. Arch. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Oseltamivir: a review of its use in influenza. McClellan, K., Perry, C.M. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Oseltamivir. Bardsley-Elliot, A., Noble, S. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
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