The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Diglycin     2-(carboxymethylamino)ethanoic acid

Synonyms: Hampshire, Diglycocoll, Diglykokoll, IMDA, Iminodiacetate, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Diglycine

  • Patients less than 75 years old who had breast cancer were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire. Controls were randomly selected from lists of licensed drivers if the case subjects were less than 65 years old, and from lists of Medicare beneficiaries if they were 65 through 74 years old [1].
  • We reviewed 1808 hospital charts representing virtually all patients given a diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer in New Hampshire and Vermont between 1973 and 1976 and found that the treatment of patients varied according to their marital status, medical insurance coverage, and proximity to a cancer-treatment center [2].
  • The study patients in New Hampshire (n = 411) and a matched comparison cohort in New Jersey (n = 1375) were Medicaid recipients 60 years of age or older who in a base-line year had been taking three or more medications per month, including at least one maintenance drug for certain chronic diseases [3].
  • Acceptable definitions of cholecystitis included surgery, pathologic examination, hepatic iminodiacetic acid scan or right upper quadrant ultrasound, or clinical course consistent with acute cholecystitis and no evidence for an alternate diagnosis [4].
  • Hereditary muscular dystrophy in chickens of the New Hampshire strain was treated with penicillamine from the 9th day after hatching to the 425th day [5].

Psychiatry related information on Diglycine


High impact information on Diglycine

  • Unlike other ubiquitin binding domains, this domain contains a deep binding pocket where the C-terminal diglycine motif of ubiquitin is inserted, thus explaining the specificity of IsoT for an unmodified C terminus on the proximal subunit of polyubiquitin [11].
  • The ubiquitin binding domain ZnF UBP recognizes the C-terminal diglycine motif of unanchored ubiquitin [11].
  • A high proportion of purebred Hampshire pigs carries the dominant RN- mutation, which causes high glycogen content in skeletal muscle [12].
  • Significantly, the site of USP1 cleavage is immediately after a conserved internal ubiquitin-like diglycine (Gly-Gly) motif [13].
  • METHODS: In a case-control study we compared use of over-the-counter analgesics by 563 women from eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire, USA, who had epithelial ovarian cancer with 523 women from the general population [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Diglycine


Biological context of Diglycine

  • The gene for variant late-infantile NCL (vLINCL), CLN6, was previously mapped to chromosome 15q21-23 and is predicted to be orthologous to the genes underlying NCL in nclf mice and in South Hampshire and Merino sheep [20].
  • TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments [21].
  • We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers [22].
  • We genotyped the CAG microsatellite and six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs962458, rs6152, rs1204038, rs2361634, rs1337080, rs1337082) of the androgen receptor gene in 987 ovarian cancer cases and 1,034 controls from a study conducted in New Hampshire and eastern Massachusetts between May 1992 and July 2003 [23].
  • In order to isolate the binding protein, plasma was fractionated first on a column of immobilized iminodiacetic acid that had been equilibrated with copper ions [24].

Anatomical context of Diglycine


Associations of Diglycine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Diglycine

  • Bacterially expressed NEDP1 is capable of processing NEDD8 in vitro to expose the diglycine motif required for conjugation and can deconjugate NEDD8 from modified substrates [35].
  • Linkage analysis established that CLN6 is the gene most likely to cause NCL in affected South Hampshire sheep, which do not have the c.184C>T mutation but show reduced expression of CLN6 mRNA in a range of tissues as determined by real-time PCR [36].
  • Analysis of the same breeds at SNP C588T (HYAL3) indicates significant differences between Hampshire and Jiangquhai respectively Rongchang, but not between Jiangquhai and Rongchang [37].
  • Protease inhibitors: synthesis of bacterial collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors incorporating succinyl hydroxamate and iminodiacetic acid hydroxamate moieties [38].
  • For example, there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between pigs representing breeds Hampshire and Jiangquhai at SNP C633T (HYAL1), but between Hampshire respectively Jiangquhai animals and Rongchang pigs [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Diglycine


  1. Lactation and a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Newcomb, P.A., Storer, B.E., Longnecker, M.P., Mittendorf, R., Greenberg, E.R., Clapp, R.W., Burke, K.P., Willett, W.C., MacMahon, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Social and economic factors in the choice of lung cancer treatment. A population-based study in two rural states. Greenberg, E.R., Chute, C.G., Stukel, T., Baron, J.A., Freeman, D.H., Yates, J., Korson, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of Medicaid drug-payment limits on admission to hospitals and nursing homes. Soumerai, S.B., Ross-Degnan, D., Avorn, J., McLaughlin, T., Choodnovskiy, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Does this patient have acute cholecystitis? Trowbridge, R.L., Rutkowski, N.K., Shojania, K.G. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Beneficial effects of penicillamine treatment on hereditary avian muscular dystrophy. Chou, T., Hill, E.J., Bartle, E., Woolley, K., LeQuire, V., Olson, W., Roelofs, R., Park, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Three-year outcomes of long-term patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Drake, R.E., Xie, H., McHugo, G.J., Shumway, M. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Recent trends in antipsychotic combination therapy of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: implications for state mental health policy. Clark, R.E., Bartels, S.J., Mellman, T.A., Peacock, W.J. Schizophrenia bulletin. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Dimensional perspective on the recognition of depressive symptoms in primary care: The Hampshire Depression Project 3. Thompson, C., Ostler, K., Peveler, R.C., Baker, N., Kinmonth, A.L. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Three-year recovery outcomes for long-term patients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders. Xie, H., McHugo, G.J., Helmstetter, B.S., Drake, R.E. Schizophr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Medicare and medicaid costs for schizophrenia patients by age cohort compared with costs for depression, dementia, and medically ill patients. Bartels, S.J., Clark, R.E., Peacock, W.J., Dums, A.R., Pratt, S.I. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The ubiquitin binding domain ZnF UBP recognizes the C-terminal diglycine motif of unanchored ubiquitin. Reyes-Turcu, F.E., Horton, J.R., Mullally, J.E., Heroux, A., Cheng, X., Wilkinson, K.D. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A mutation in PRKAG3 associated with excess glycogen content in pig skeletal muscle. Milan, D., Jeon, J.T., Looft, C., Amarger, V., Robic, A., Thelander, M., Rogel-Gaillard, C., Paul, S., Iannuccelli, N., Rask, L., Ronne, H., Lundström, K., Reinsch, N., Gellin, J., Kalm, E., Roy, P.L., Chardon, P., Andersson, L. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of monoubiquitinated PCNA by DUB autocleavage. Huang, T.T., Nijman, S.M., Mirchandani, K.D., Galardy, P.J., Cohn, M.A., Haas, W., Gygi, S.P., Ploegh, H.L., Bernards, R., D'Andrea, A.D. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Over-the-counter analgesics and risk of ovarian cancer. Cramer, D.W., Harlow, B.L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Bohlke, K., Welch, W.R., Greenberg, E.R. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy. Rodman, C.A., Keeffe, E.B., Lieberman, D.A., Krishnamurthy, S., Krishnamurthy, G.T., Gilbert, S., Eklem, M.J. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Scintigraphic detection of segmental bile-duct obstruction. Gupta, S., Owshalimpur, D., Cohen, G., Margules, R., Herrera, N. J. Nucl. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Southampton and South West Hampshire Health Authority. Roberts, M.H., Martin, J.P., McLellan, D.L., McIntosh-Michaelis, S.A., Spackman, A.J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Rapid detection of infectious mononucleosis-associated heterophile antibodies by a novel immunochromatographic assay and a latex agglutination test. Farhat, S.E., Finn, S., Chua, R., Smith, B., Simor, A.E., George, P., Diena, B.B., Diena, D., Skulnick, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Therapeutic efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of biliary dyskinesia. Patel, N.A., Lamb, J.J., Hogle, N.J., Fowler, D.L. Am. J. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The gene mutated in variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN6) and in nclf mutant mice encodes a novel predicted transmembrane protein. Wheeler, R.B., Sharp, J.D., Schultz, R.A., Joslin, J.M., Williams, R.E., Mole, S.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems. Likens, G.E., Tartowski, S.L., Berger, T.W., Richey, D.G., Driscoll, C.T., Frank, H.G., Klein, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Kaushal, S.S., Groffman, P.M., Likens, G.E., Belt, K.T., Stack, W.P., Kelly, V.R., Band, L.E., Fisher, G.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Androgen receptor cytosine, adenine, guanine repeats, and haplotypes in relation to ovarian cancer risk. Terry, K.L., De Vivo, I., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Shih, M.C., Cramer, D.W. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a new protein involved in the regulation of the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C. Protein S-binding protein. Walker, F.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study. Pellegrini, C.A., Ryan, T., Broderick, W., Way, L.W. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Enterogastric reflux in normal subjects and patients with Bilroth II gastroenterostomy. Measurement of enterogastric reflux. Tolin, R.D., Malmud, L.S., Stelzer, F., Menin, R., Makler, P.T., Applegate, G., Fisher, R.S. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Quantitative temporal analysis of 99mTechnetium p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) as a measure of hepatic function in health and disease. Joshi, S.N., George, E.A., Perrillo, R.P. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. Use of the internal mammary artery graft in Northern New England. Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. Leavitt, B.J., Olmstead, E.M., Plume, S.K., Charlesworth, D.C., Maislen, E.L., James, T.W., Baribeau, Y.R., Quinn, R., O'Connor, G.T. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Technetium-99m-iminodiacetic acid organic anions: review of biokinetics and clinical application in hepatology. Krishnamurthy, S., Krishnamurthy, G.T. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Distinct polyphosphoinositide binding selectivities for pleckstrin homology domains of GRP1-like proteins based on diglycine versus triglycine motifs. Klarlund, J.K., Tsiaras, W., Holik, J.J., Chawla, A., Czech, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Histidine patch thioredoxins. Mutant forms of thioredoxin with metal chelating affinity that provide for convenient purifications of thioredoxin fusion proteins. Lu, Z., DiBlasio-Smith, E.A., Grant, K.L., Warne, N.W., LaVallie, E.R., Collins-Racie, L.A., Follettie, M.T., Williamson, M.J., McCoy, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Approach for determining protein ubiquitination sites by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Wang, D., Cotter, R.J. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Vascular thrombosis in acute hepatic allograft rejection: scintigraphic appearance. Williams, H.C., Pope, C.F., Siskind, B.N., Lange, R.C., Flye, M.W. J. Nucl. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Glucose, glycine and diglycine in test meals at stimuli to a duodenal osmoreceptor slowing gastric emptying. Barker, G.R., Cochrane, G.M., Corbett, G.A., Dufton, J.F., Hunt, J.N., Roberts, S.K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  35. NEDP1, a highly conserved cysteine protease that deNEDDylates Cullins. Mendoza, H.M., Shen, L.N., Botting, C., Lewis, A., Chen, J., Ink, B., Hay, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. A missense mutation (c.184C>T) in ovine CLN6 causes neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Merino sheep whereas affected South Hampshire sheep have reduced levels of CLN6 mRNA. Tammen, I., Houweling, P.J., Frugier, T., Mitchell, N.L., Kay, G.W., Cavanagh, J.A., Cook, R.W., Raadsma, H.W., Palmer, D.N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Molecular characterization of porcine hyaluronidase genes 1, 2, and 3 clustered on SSC13q21. Gatphayak, K., Knorr, C., Beck, J., Brenig, B. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Protease inhibitors: synthesis of bacterial collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors incorporating succinyl hydroxamate and iminodiacetic acid hydroxamate moieties. Santos, M.A., Marques, S., Gil, M., Tegoni, M., Scozzafava, A., Supuran, C.T. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. The New England Regional Toxoplasma Working Group. Guerina, N.G., Hsu, H.W., Meissner, H.C., Maguire, J.H., Lynfield, R., Stechenberg, B., Abroms, I., Pasternack, M.S., Hoff, R., Eaton, R.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Pregnancy termination in relation to risk of breast cancer. Newcomb, P.A., Storer, B.E., Longnecker, M.P., Mittendorf, R., Greenberg, E.R., Willett, W.C. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Performance of screening mammography among women with and without a first-degree relative with breast cancer. Kerlikowske, K., Carney, P.A., Geller, B., Mandelson, M.T., Taplin, S.H., Malvin, K., Ernster, V., Urban, N., Cutter, G., Rosenberg, R., Ballard-Barbash, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Biliary complications of cystic fibrosis. O'Brien, S., Keogan, M., Casey, M., Duffy, G., McErlean, D., Fitzgerald, M.X., Hegarty, J.E. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities