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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Amebiasis


High impact information on Amebiasis

  • Among patients with invasive amebiasis from Durban, Republic of South Africa; San Diego, Calif; Mexico City, Mexico; and St Louis, Mo, 53 (82%) of 65 had antibodies to SREHP [6].
  • The observation that a histolytic cysteine proteinase gene is present only in pathogenic isolates of E. histolytica suggests that this aspect of virulence in amebiasis is genetically predetermined [7].
  • Immunological studies from this population have shown that protection from amebiasis is associated with mucosal anti-E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin antibodies, suggesting that a vaccine is an achievable goal [8].
  • The latter assay proved capable of detecting amoebic antigens in the polyethylene glycol precipitates of sera from 21 of 21 patients with amoebiasis (and none of 22 control subjects) [9].
  • Use of bisacodyl suppository in the diagnosis of amoebiasis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Amebiasis

  • Metronidazole is currently approved for use against Trichomonas infection and amebiasis [11].
  • In an attempt to investigate the relationship between the cleavage of complement components C3 and C5 and the pathogenesis of amebiasis, we investigated the production of the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which have diverse effects on the host immune response [12].
  • In this review, Sam Stanley Jr discusses why a vaccine for amebiasis may be feasible, and describes the recent development of several promising recombinant E. histolytica antigen-based parenteral and oral vaccine candidates [13].
  • By blast search we found in Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, two genes (Ehclc-A and Ehclc-B) encoding for putative polypeptides with 25-30% identity to ClC chloride channels of several organisms [14].
  • The E. histolytica galactose/N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (Gal-lectin), an immunogenic surface molecule involved in colonization and invasion, is a promising vaccine candidate against amoebiasis [15].

Biological context of Amebiasis


Anatomical context of Amebiasis


Gene context of Amebiasis

  • These results suggest that the TNF-alpha-stimulating region of native Gal-lectin is a potent stimulus of IFN-gamma-primed BMM for NO production, which is essential for host defense against amebiasis [25].
  • Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinases with interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) activity cause intestinal inflammation and tissue damage in amoebiasis [26].
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the specific interactions occurring between E. histolytica secreted cysteine proteinases and colonic mucin as a model to examine the initial events of invasive amebiasis [27].
  • Other DQB1 and DRB1 alleles (DQB1*0202, DQB1*0301, and DRB1*0701) were not associated with any of the clinical outcomes related to amebiasis [28].
  • The increase in human intestinal IL-1beta and IL-8 in response to invasive amebiasis was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays specific for human IL-1beta and IL-8 [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amebiasis


  1. The pathogenesis of amoebiasis. Martínez-Palomo, A. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Aspects of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of nitroimidazoles with special reference to tinidazole. Noguchi, Y., Tanaka, T. Drugs (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by vaccination with a 25-mer peptide derived from the cysteine-rich region of Entamoeba histolytica galactose-specific adherence lectin. Lotter, H., Khajawa, F., Stanley, S.L., Tannich, E. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple cerebral abscesses complicating hepatopulmonary amebiasis. Hughes, F.B., Faehnle, S.T., Simon, J.L. J. Pediatr. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of invasive amebiasis by using a recombinant surface protein of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Lotter, H., Mannweiler, E., Schreiber, M., Tannich, E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Serodiagnosis of invasive amebiasis using a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica protein. Stanley, S.L., Jackson, T.F., Reed, S.L., Calderon, J., Kunz-Jenkins, C., Gathiram, V., Li, E. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning of a virulence factor of Entamoeba histolytica. Pathogenic strains possess a unique cysteine proteinase gene. Reed, S., Bouvier, J., Pollack, A.S., Engel, J.C., Brown, M., Hirata, K., Que, X., Eakin, A., Hagblom, P., Gillin, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Opportunities and obstacles in developing a vaccine for Entamoeba histolytica. Miller-Sims, V.C., Petri, W.A. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. A solid-phase sandwich radioimmunoassay for Entamoeba histolytica proteins and the detection of circulating antigens in amoebiasis. Pillai, S., Mohimen, A. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of bisacodyl suppository in the diagnosis of amoebiasis. Vafai, M. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Metronidazole. Finegold, S.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. The extracellular neutral cysteine proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica degrades anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Reed, S.L., Ember, J.A., Herdman, D.S., DiScipio, R.G., Hugli, T.E., Gigli, I. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Progress towards an amebiasis vaccine. Stanley, S.L. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification and functional characterization of EhClC-A, an Entamoeba histolytica ClC chloride channel located at plasma membrane. Salas-Casas, A., Ponce-Balderas, A., García-Pérez, R.M., Cortés-Reynosa, P., Gamba, G., Orozco, E., Rodríguez, M.A. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide is a potent adjuvant with an Entamoeba histolytica Gal-inhibitable lectin vaccine against amoebic liver abscess in gerbils. Ivory, C.P., Keller, K., Chadee, K. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Cloning and expression of a membrane antigen of Entamoeba histolytica possessing multiple tandem repeats. Stanley, S.L., Becker, A., Kunz-Jenkins, C., Foster, L., Li, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Human tumor necrosis factor is a chemoattractant for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Blazquez, S., Zimmer, C., Guigon, G., Olivo-Marin, J.C., Guillén, N., Labruyère, E. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Intestinal lumen and mucosal microclimate H+ and NH3 concentrations as factors in the etiology of experimental amebiasis. Leitch, G.J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of a partially purified Fasciola gigantica worm antigen in the serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis in Egypt. Mansour, N.S., Youssef, F.G., Mikhail, E.M., Boctor, F.N. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel bidentate complexes of Cu(II) derived from 5-nitrofuran-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones with antiamoebic activity against E. histolytica. Sharma, S., Athar, F., Maurya, M.R., Naqvi, F., Azam, A. European journal of medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of gamma interferon on syntheses of DNA and proteins by Entamoeba histolytica. Castellanos, C., Ramos, C., Ortiz-Ortiz, L. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. EhCP112 is an Entamoeba histolytica secreted cysteine protease that may be involved in the parasite-virulence. Ocádiz, R., Orozco, E., Carrillo, E., Quintas, L.I., Ortega-López, J., García-Pérez, R.M., Sánchez, T., Castillo-Juárez, B.A., García-Rivera, G., Rodríguez, M.A. Cell. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Total and specific IgE in sera from patients with invasive amoebiasis. Aceti, A., Celestino, D., Caferro, M., Pennica, A., Sebastiani, A. Tropical and geographical medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Entamoeba histolytica modulates TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha/beta and c-fos gene expression in macrophages. Seguin, R., Chadee, K. Arch. Med. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. The tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulating region of galactose-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica activates gamma interferon-primed macrophages for amebicidal activity mediated by nitric oxide. Séguin, R., Mann, B.J., Keller, K., Chadee, K. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinases with interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) activity cause intestinal inflammation and tissue damage in amoebiasis. Zhang, Z., Wang, L., Seydel, K.B., Li, E., Ankri, S., Mirelman, D., Stanley, S.L. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinases disrupt the polymeric structure of colonic mucin and alter its protective function. Moncada, D., Keller, K., Chadee, K. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles on susceptibility to Entamoeba histolytica infection in Bangladeshi children. Duggal, P., Haque, R., Roy, S., Mondal, D., Sack, R.B., Farr, B.M., Beaty, T.H., Petri, W.A. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Human intestinal epithelial cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to infection in a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft model of amebiasis. Seydel, K.B., Li, E., Swanson, P.E., Stanley, S.L. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Tinidazole in the treatment of trichomoniasis, giardiasis and amoebiasis. Report of a multicentre study. Apte, V.V., Packard, R.S. Drugs (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. Complete resolution of generalized eczema craquelé after treatment with metronidazole of occult amebiasis. Wahba-Yahav, A.V. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Recognition of Entamoeba histolytica lipophosphoglycan by a strain-specific monoclonal antibody and human immune sera. Prasad, R., Tola, M., Bhattacharya, S., Sharma, M.P., Bhattacharya, A. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. The presence of liver auto-antibodies induced by Entamoeba histolytica in the sera from both naturally infected humans and immunized rabbits. Faubert, G.M., Meerovitch, E., McLaughlin, J. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and expression of a putative alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Entamoeba histolytica and its application to immunological examination. Kimura, A., Hara, Y., Kimoto, T., Okuno, Y., Minekawa, Y., Nakabayashi, T. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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