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MeSH Review

Parenteral Nutrition

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Disease relevance of Parenteral Nutrition


High impact information on Parenteral Nutrition

  • BACKGROUND: Aluminum, a contaminant of commercial intravenous-feeding solutions, is potentially neurotoxic [6].
  • A fifth pregnancy was carried to term without complications after aggressive dietary therapy and intermittent intravenous feeding, administered whenever her triglyceride levels exceeded an arbitrarily selected threshold concentration of 28 mmol/L [7].
  • At 4 weeks after inoculation, 1 group was given total iv (parenteral) feeding at high caloric and nutritional levels for 2 weeks [8].
  • BACKGROUND: In patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN), cholestatic disease and nervous system disorders have been associated with high blood concentrations of manganese [9].
  • Plasma-free choline levels have previously been found below normal in patients receiving long term parenteral nutrition (TPN) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Parenteral Nutrition


Biological context of Parenteral Nutrition


Anatomical context of Parenteral Nutrition


Associations of Parenteral Nutrition with chemical compounds


Gene context of Parenteral Nutrition

  • However, it is not known whether parenteral nutrition (PN) providing a low amino acid (AA) input will influence IGF-I action [24].
  • Compared with placebo, all oroenteral diets stimulated amylase, lipase, trypsin, and bile acid secretion and increased plasma concentrations of gastrin and cholecystokinin, whereas intravenous feeding did not [25].
  • RESULTS: Mn concentration was higher in HPN patients than controls (1.96+/-1.1 vs 0.81+/- 0.4 microg/L;P<0.001) and positively correlated to the amount of parenteral nutrition (PN) supply, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (r=0.53, P<0.0001) concentrations, as well as to ESR (r=0.61, P<0.0001), TNF- alpha and blood neopterin [26].
  • The first purpose of the present prospective randomized study was to determine if the protein catabolic response after operation could be restrained by administration of hypocaloric parenteral nutrition (HPN) plus human growth hormone (hGH) [27].
  • Albumin, prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, and transferrin were all measured on the sera of 39 cancer patients before and during parenteral nutrition (PN) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Parenteral Nutrition

  • In this model of catabolic stress, fluid retention and expansion of the extracellular fluid compartment commonly observed after standard total parenteral nutrition can be attenuated by administering glutamine-supplemented intravenous feedings, possibly by protecting the host from microbial invasion and associated infection [17].
  • On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine [29].
  • INTERVENTIONS: Animals received 6-hr tail vein infusions, commencing 18 hrs after cecal ligation and puncture, of either (a) 0.9% sodium chloride, (b) a standard parenteral nutrition (PN) solution without glutamine, or (c) an isocaloric, isonitrogenous PN solution with glutamine [30].
  • Sixty-six patients with persistent hypermetabolism 4 to 6 days after onset of sepsis were prospectively randomized to receive either parenteral nutrition (PN) or enteral nutrition (EN) at 1.5 gm protein/kg/day and 30 nonprotein calories/kg/day; the EN and TPN were of the same composition [31].
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of nutrition support (parenteral nutrition [PN] vs no parenteral nutrition [nPN]) on nutrition outcome, complications, and hospital stay after bariatric surgery (BS) [32].


  1. Plasma insulin and surgery. II. Later changes and the effect of intravenous carbohydrates. Giddings, A.E., Rowlands, B.J., Mangnall, D., Clark, R.G. Ann. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth hormone, glutamine, and an optimal diet reduces parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Byrne, T.A., Wilmore, D.W., Iyer, K., Dibaise, J., Clancy, K., Robinson, M.K., Chang, P., Gertner, J.M., Lautz, D. Ann. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Thermogenic, hormonal and metabolic effects of intravenous glucose infusion in human sepsis. Carlson, G.L., Gray, P., Arnold, J., Little, R.A., Irving, M.H. The British journal of surgery. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Trypsin and splanchnic protein turnover during feeding and fasting in human subjects. O'keefe, S.J., Lee, R.B., Li, J., Zhou, W., Stoll, B., Dang, Q. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Alterations in N-acetylation of 3-methylhistidine in endotoxemic parenterally fed rats. Kuhl, D.A., Mouser, J.F., Methvin, J.T., Hak, E.B., Hak, L.J., Dickerson, R.N. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Aluminum neurotoxicity in preterm infants receiving intravenous-feeding solutions. Bishop, N.J., Morley, R., Day, J.P., Lucas, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Successful hyperlipemic pregnancy. Sanderson, S.L., Iverius, P.H., Wilson, D.E. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of growth of a transplantable hepatoma in rats by parenteral nutrition. Cameron, I.L., Pavlat, W.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Manganese toxicity in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Fell, J.M., Reynolds, A.P., Meadows, N., Khan, K., Long, S.G., Quaghebeur, G., Taylor, W.J., Milla, P.J. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Lecithin increases plasma free choline and decreases hepatic steatosis in long-term total parenteral nutrition patients. Buchman, A.L., Dubin, M., Jenden, D., Moukarzel, A., Roch, M.H., Rice, K., Gornbein, J., Ament, M.E., Eckhert, C.D. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The effect of alpha-adrenergic antagonism upon nitrogen loss during endotoxemia. Dickerson, R.N., Kuhl, D.A., Brown, R.O., Methvin, J.T., Mouser, J.F., Hak, E.B., Hak, L.J. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Copper deficiency during parenteral nutrition: a report of four pediatric cases. Hurwitz, M., Garcia, M.G., Poole, R.L., Kerner, J.A. Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Parenteral nutrition with lipid or glucose suppresses liver growth and response to GH in adolescent male rats. Sevette, A., Kee, A.J., Carlsson, A.R., Baxter, R.C., Smith, R.C. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients on chronic haemodialysis therapy. Smolle, K.H., Kaufmann, P., Holzer, H., Druml, W. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Oral prostaglandin E2 prevents gut atrophy during intravenous feeding but not bacterial translocation. Helton, W.S., Garcia, R. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in cytokine- and endotoxin-treated rats. Ling, P.R., Istfan, N.W., Colon, E., Bistrian, B.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Glutamine-enriched intravenous feedings attenuate extracellular fluid expansion after a standard stress. Scheltinga, M.R., Young, L.S., Benfell, K., Bye, R.L., Ziegler, T.R., Santos, A.A., Antin, J.H., Schloerb, P.R., Wilmore, D.W. Ann. Surg. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis in stable low-birth-weight infants during exclusive breast milk feedings and during parenteral nutrition. Garg, M., Bassilian, S., Bell, C., Lee, S., Lee, W.N. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Postoperative positive nitrogen balance with intravenous hyponutrition and growth hormone. Ponting, G.A., Halliday, D., Teale, J.D., Sim, A.J. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Nutritional significance of fructose and sugar alcohols. Wang, Y.M., van Eys, J. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Whole-body protein breakdown and 3-methylhistidine excretion during brief fasting, starvation, and intravenous repletion in man. Lowry, S.F., Horowitz, G.D., Jeevanandam, M., Legaspi, A., Brennan, M.F. Ann. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition. Kopple, J.D., Vinton, N.E., Laidlaw, S.A., Ament, M.E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Intravenous feeding of the rat with short chain fatty acid esters. II. Monoacetoacetin. Birkhahn, R.H., Border, J.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Parenteral amino acid intake alters the anabolic actions of insulin-like growth factor I in rats. Kee, A.J., Baxter, R.C., Carlsson, A.R., Smith, R.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Physiological effects of enteral and parenteral feeding on pancreaticobiliary secretion in humans. O'Keefe, S.J., Lee, R.B., Anderson, F.P., Gennings, C., Abou-Assi, S., Clore, J., Heuman, D., Chey, W. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Factors associated to hypermanganesemia in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Reimund, J.M., Dietemann, J.L., Warter, J.M., Baumann, R., Duclos, B. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Exogenous growth hormone: effects on the catabolic response to surgically produced acute stress and on postoperative immune function. Vara-Thorbeck, R., Guerrero, J.A., Rosell, J., Ruiz-Requena, E., Capitán, J.M. World journal of surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Assessment of nutritional proteins during the parenteral nutrition of cancer patients. Bourry, J., Milano, G., Caldani, C., Schneider, M. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. Liet, J.M., Piloquet, H., Marchini, J.S., Maugère, P., Bobin, C., Rozé, J.C., Darmaun, D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of growth hormone on muscle and liver protein synthesis in septic rats receiving glutamine-enriched parenteral nutrition. O'Leary, M.J., Ferguson, C.N., Rennie, M., Hinds, C.J., Coakley, J.H., Preedy, V.R. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Enteral nutrition does not prevent multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) after sepsis. Cerra, F.B., McPherson, J.P., Konstantinides, F.N., Konstantinides, N.N., Teasley, K.M. Surgery (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of parenteral nutrition on nutrition status after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Olmos, M.A., Vázquez, M.J., Gorría, M.J., González, P.P., Martínez, I.O., Chimeno, I.M., González, E.P., Bobo, M.T., Núñez, J.E. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (2005) [Pubmed]
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