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Chemical Compound Review

Cobaltous ion     cobalt(+2) cation

Synonyms: cobalt ion, Cobalt(2+), Cobalt ions, Co+2, Co2+, ...
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Disease relevance of Cobalt ions

  • With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 microM cobalt(II) chloride [1].
  • Spectroscopic studies of cobalt(II) binding to Escherichia coli bacterioferritin [2].
  • A transposon (Tn 10dCam) insertion mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 was isolated that exhibited hypersensitivity to zinc(II) and cadmium(II) and, to a lesser extent, cobalt(II) and nickel (II) [3].
  • The orientation and the axial, Deltachiax, and rhombic, Deltachirh, components of the magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropy for the cobalt(II) and nickel(II) derivatives of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been determined from 1H NMR data [4].
  • These data indicate that thiol oxidation constitutes an early event in the pulmonary toxicity of cobalt(II) ions and are compatible with the hypothesis that the generation of oxidative stress may be of significance to the toxic process [5].

High impact information on Cobalt ions

  • Anion-templated self-assembly of tetrahedral cage complexes of cobalt(II) with bridging ligands containing two bidentate pyrazolyl-pyridine binding sites [6].
  • When cobaltous ion is bound to glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC], the two-layered hexagonal molecules polymerize face-to-face, to form long strands [7].
  • Induction of mPTP by Taxol and nocodazole was confirmed by using a calcein/Co(2+) imaging technique [8].
  • The phosphatase activity of these proteins had a neutral pH optimum (pH 7.0-8.0) and was strictly dependent on the presence of divalent metal cations (SurE: Mn(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+) > Mg(2+); YfbR: Co(2+) > Mn(2+) > Cu(2+); YjjG: Mg(2+) > Mn(2+) > Co(2+)) [9].
  • Exposure of cells to carcinogenic compounds of nickel(II) and cobalt(II) causes activation of the HIF-1 transcription factor and up-regulates a battery of hypoxia-inducible genes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cobalt ions


Biological context of Cobalt ions

  • Replacement of the amino-terminal His residue by Ala abolishes the ability of KIR2DL1 to bind Co(2+), indicating that Co(2+)-mediated KIR2DL1 dimerization involves pairing of the D1 domain [15].
  • Kinetic constants in both the aminoacylation and ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reactions for the Co(2+)- and 113Cd(2+)-substituted delta MTS proteins were found to be identical with those of the native Zn2+ protein [16].
  • Organometallic cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes supported by thioether ligation: unexpected nickel alkylation by the borato ligand phenyltris((tert-butylthio)methyl)borate [17].
  • Sperm activation artificially evoked by incubation in high-pH seawater was inhibited by reducing seawater [Ca(2+)], as well as by the presence of high [K(+)](o) or the Ca channel blockers pimozide, penfluridol, or Ni(2+), but not nifedipine or Co(2+) [18].
  • A thio effect is measured for hydrolysis of N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the corresponding thiolactone by AHL lactonase disubstituted with alternative metal ions, including Mn(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Cd(2+) [19].

Anatomical context of Cobalt ions


Associations of Cobalt ions with other chemical compounds

  • Mutations at P2 subsite residues (Y93F and K56R) caused a much greater decrease in phosphate binding affinity of yeast PPase in the presence of Mn(2+) or Co(2+) than mutations at P1 subsite residues (R78K and K193R) [25].
  • Contrary to expectations, the N35H variant was unable to hydrolyze pyrophosphate, but markedly altered metal cofactor specificity, displaying higher catalytic activity with Co(2+) bound to the weak binding site versus the Mg(2+)- or Mn(2+)-bound enzyme [26].
  • Occupation of the first metal ion binding site causes dimerization of IdeR, and the metal ion affinity is about 4 microM for Ni(2+) and much less for Fe(2+) and Co(2+) [27].
  • Comparison with Co(2+):ZnS quantum dots prepared by the same methods, which show nearly isotropic dopant distribution, indicates that the large mismatch between the ionic radii of Co(2+) (0.74 A) and Cd(2+) (0.97 A) is responsible for exclusion of Co(2+) ions during CdS nanocrystal growth [28].
  • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of cobalt(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrin, a promising material for optical, photoelectrochemical, and chemical sensor applications, were prepared on Au(111) via axial ligation to 4-aminothiophenol, and studied by several surface science techniques [29].

Gene context of Cobalt ions

  • Exposure of the zntA mutant to cobalt(II) and cadmium(II) also resulted in elevated levels of intracellular and cell surface-bound metal ions [3].
  • At pH 6.4 the EC(50)'s, for all tested heavy metals were significantly low, in contrast to acidic pH conditions, in which both strains were able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of the transition metals Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+), with the pdr5 yor1 snq2 mutant being more tolerant [30].
  • DMT1 also acts as a proton-dependent transporter for other heavy metal ions including Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Cu(2), but not for Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) [31].
  • Recent studies demonstrated that Co(2+) and Cr(3+) ions induced cell mortality, TNF-alpha secretion, and oxidation of proteins in macrophages [32].
  • Glutathione peroxidase expression was also increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by both Co(2+) and Cr(3+) ions [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cobalt ions

  • Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that in all cases except for the D153H/K328W enzyme, a possible conformation change occurs upon binding Co(2+) [33].
  • In this study, the inhibitory NK receptor KIR2DL1 was discovered to dimerize in the presence of Co(2+) as observed on native gel electrophoresis and by gel filtration column chromatography [15].
  • Ligand-field electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra confirm homogeneous substitutional speciation of Co(2+) in the ZnSe QDs [34].
  • Self-assembled monolayers of cobalt(II)- (4-tert-butylphenyl)-porphyrins: the influence of the electronic dipole on scanning tunneling microscopy images [29].
  • UV-vis spectra monitored on the solid support showed ligation of copper(II) by about one-third out of the 96 synthesized proteins and tetrahedral complexes of cobalt(II) by most of these proteins [35].


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