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Disease relevance of Cockroaches


Psychiatry related information on Cockroaches


High impact information on Cockroaches

  • Proctolin (H-Arg-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Thr-OH) is a pentapeptide first extracted from cockroaches [8].
  • P. americana allergen 1 (Per a 1) and Per a 7 (tropomyosin) are to date the only cross-reacting allergens found in cockroaches [9].
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that Ags derived from cockroaches are especially prominent in these settings and a significant health concern for the induction of asthma in children [10].
  • Larval-specific protein (LSP) is the most abundant protein in the hemolymph of cockroaches shortly before molting, but is rapidly cleared from the hemolymph during the molt (Kunkel, J. G., and Lawler, D. M. (1974) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47B, 697-710) [11].
  • Midguts from cockroaches or mealworms were used and membrane fractions were obtained by sucrose gradient and ultracentrifugation techniques [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cockroaches


Biological context of Cockroaches


Anatomical context of Cockroaches

  • NADPH diaphorase histochemistry in the thoracic ganglia of locusts, crickets, and cockroaches: species differences and the impact of fixation [21].
  • A serum raised against octopamine reveals in cockroaches and honey bees structurally comparable systems of perikarya and their extensive yet discrete systems of arborizations in neuropils [22].
  • The peripheral branching of the identified motor neurons Df and Ds which innervate the coxal depressor muscles in the legs of cockroaches was examined using the anterograde transport of a cobaltic-lysine complex and the retrograde transport of cobaltous ion or horseradish peroxidase [23].
  • The toxin can reversibly paralyse cockroaches for several hours, with an ED50 of 127 +/- 54 microg/g. HWTX-II blocks neuromuscular transmission in an isolated mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation and acts cooperatively to potentiate the activity of huwentoxin-I [24].
  • Histochemical demonstration of oxidoreductase activities in the fat body and symbionts of Blattella germanica (Blattodea) following chlortetracycline-treatment [25].

Associations of Cockroaches with chemical compounds

  • Two novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides were identified in dung beetles of the genus Onitis using heterologous (measuring lipid and carbohydrate mobilization in locusts and cockroaches) and a homologous (measuring proline increase in the haemolymph) bioassay(s) [26].
  • The results are also discussed with respect to recent studies on octopamine-immunoreactive organization in honey bees and cockroaches and the suggested roles of octopamine in sensory processing, learning, and memory [27].
  • Acetate and lactate were the principal organic acids present in the gut fluid of adult cockroaches and occurred at concentrations of up to 17 and 8 mM, respectively [28].
  • Foreguts of dog chow-fed cockroaches contained an abundant population of lactic acid bacteria that formed acetate and lactate from endogenous hexoses present in the foregut [28].
  • A comparable immunocytological organization of aspartate- and glutamate-immunoreactive neurons in honeybees and cockroaches further suggests that neural arrangements providing directional motion vision in flies may have early evolutionary origins [29].

Gene context of Cockroaches

  • A full-length cDNA encoding a new cytochrome P450, CYP6L1, was cloned from German cockroaches, Blattella germanica [30].
  • The "traditional" treatment for German cockroaches consisted of monthly baseboard and crack and crevice treatment (TBCC) by using spray and dust formulation insecticides [31].
  • Soil-burrowing cockroaches appear to have evolved from a lineage of wood burrowers that invaded Australia from the north some time after the merging of the Asian and Australian tectonic plates ca. 20 Myr ago [32].
  • The GlnGln form of the R130Q polymorphism in the IL-13 gene was associated with serum total IgE (P = 0.005) as well as specific IgE to Der p 1 (P = 0.021), mixed cockroaches (P = 0.03) and dog (P = 0.003) but not with physician-diagnosed asthma (P = 0.621) [33].
  • Cloning of two novel P450 cDNAs from German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.): CYP6K1 and CYP6J1 [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cockroaches

  • Nine individual sera containing IgE antibodies to both cockroaches were used to analyze the cross-reacting allergens in the crude American and German cockroach extracts by FAST inhibition and immunoblotting FAST-inhibition studies showed various degrees but similar inhibition of binding of human IgE to solid-phase American cockroach extract [35].
  • The telomerase from crickets and cockroaches required dATP, dGTP and dTTP but not dCTP as a substrate and sequence analyses of the products of TRAP revealed that the (TTAGG)n repeats are synthesized by telomerase [36].
  • The results of our study demonstrate that deltamethrin-resistant German cockroaches are numerous in Singapore. Comparison between the two bioassay methods showed that there was significant correlation between KD50 and KT50 values [37].
  • A mutation at nucleotide position 2979 (G to C, causing a leucine to phenylalanine change) in the S6 transmembrane segment of domain II of the para-homologous voltage-gated sodium channel has been previously identified in knockdown-resistant cockroaches and demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis to reduce channel sensitivity to pyrethroids [38].
  • Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits [39].


  1. Isolation and characterization of a clone encoding a major allergen (Bla g Bd90K) involved in IgE-mediated cockroach hypersensitivity. Helm, R., Cockrell, G., Stanley, J.S., Brenner, R.J., Burks, W., Bannon, G.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Purification and functional characterization of insecticidal sphingomyelinase C produced by Bacillus cereus. Nishiwaki, H., Ito, K., Otsuki, K., Yamamoto, H., Komai, K., Matsuda, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Cockroaches as potential vectors of nosocomial infections. Pai, H.H., Chen, W.C., Peng, C.F. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and performance of sulfluramid against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Appel, A.G., Abd-Elghafar, S.F. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence of fenoxycarb on German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations in public housing. Reid, B.L., Bennett, G.W., Yonker, J.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparison of the effect of kainate and some related amino acids on locomotor activity in cockroaches and electrical activity recorded from locust ventral nerve cord. Castle, F., Evans, R.H., Kirkpatrick, J.N. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Comp. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of sublethal propoxur exposure on male German cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) and their feeding behavior. Kramer, R.D., Koehler, P.G., Patterson, R.S., Slansky, F. J. Econ. Entomol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuropeptide proctolin (H-Arg-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Thr-OH): immunological detection and neuronal localization in insect central nervous system. Bishop, C.A., O'Shea, M., Miller, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular characterization of American cockroach tropomyosin (Periplaneta americana allergen 7), a cross-reactive allergen. Asturias, J.A., Gómez-Bayón, N., Arilla, M.C., Martínez, A., Palacios, R., Sánchez-Gascón, F., Martínez, J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Temporal role of chemokines in a murine model of cockroach allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia. Campbell, E.M., Kunkel, S.L., Strieter, R.M., Lukacs, N.W. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cockroach larval-specific protein, a tyrosine-rich serum protein. Duhamel, R.C., Kunkel, J.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation and characterization of invertebrate smooth septate junctions. Green, C.R., Noirot-Timothée, C., Noirot, C. J. Cell. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Decapitation impacting effect of topically applied chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase and general esterases in susceptible and resistant German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Park, N.J., Kamble, S.T. J. Econ. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of several insecticide formulations against adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Abd-Elghafar, S.F., Appel, A.G., Mack, T.P. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Oral toxicity, formulation effects, and field performance of flufenoxuron against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Reid, B.L., Appel, A.G., Demark, J.J., Bennett, G.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. High-level expression of cockroach allergen, Bla g 4, in Pichia pastoris. Vailes, L.D., Kinter, M.T., Arruda, L.K., Chapman, M.D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of wood-feeding cockroaches, genus Salganea Stål (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae), in Southeast Asia based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Maekawa, K., Kon, M., Araya, K., Matsumoto, T. J. Mol. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons and neurohemal systems in cockroaches and mantids. Davis, N.T., Hildebrand, J.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Neural and hormonal regulation of growth of corpora allata in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Chiang, A.S., Tsai, W.H., Schal, C. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Sub-lethal exposure of cockroaches to boric acid pesticide contributes to increased Bla g 2 excretion. Zhang, Y.C., Perzanowski, M.S., Chew, G.L. Allergy (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. NADPH diaphorase histochemistry in the thoracic ganglia of locusts, crickets, and cockroaches: species differences and the impact of fixation. Ott, S.R., Burrows, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the honey bee and cockroach: comparable organization in the brain and subesophageal ganglion. Sinakevitch, I., Niwa, M., Strausfeld, N.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Identified motor neurons in the cockroach exhibit stereotypic peripheral branching and nerve terminal structure. Denburg, J.L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Purification and characterization of huwentoxin-II, a neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the Chinese bird spider Selenocosmia huwena. Shu, Q., Liang, S.P. J. Pept. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Histochemical demonstration of oxidoreductase activities in the fat body and symbionts of Blattella germanica (Blattodea) following chlortetracycline-treatment. De Piceis Polver, P., Sacchi, L., Cima, L., Grigolo, A., Laudani, U. Basic and applied histochemistry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Hyperprolinaemia caused by novel members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family of peptides isolated from corpora cardiaca of onitine beetles. Gäde, G. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brains of the fruit fly and blow fly. Sinakevitch, I., Strausfeld, N.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of host diet on production of organic acids and methane by cockroach gut bacteria. Kane, M.D., Breznak, J.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemical neuroanatomy of the fly's movement detection pathway. Sinakevitch, I., Strausfeld, N.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Cytochrome P450 CYP6L1 is specifically expressed in the reproductive tissues of adult male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Wen, Z., Scott, J.G. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Cost and efficacy comparison of integrated pest management strategies with monthly spray insecticide applications for German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) control in public housing. Miller, D.M., Meek, F. J. Econ. Entomol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. The evolution of soil-burrowing cockroaches (Blattaria: Blaberidae) from wood-burrowing ancestors following an invasion of the latter from Asia into Australia. Maekawa, K., Lo, N., Rose, H.A., Matsumoto, T. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. A polymorphism in the coding region of interleukin-13 gene is associated with atopy but not asthma in Chinese children. Leung, T.F., Tang, N.L., Chan, I.H., Li, A.M., Ha, G., Lam, C.W. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning of two novel P450 cDNAs from German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.): CYP6K1 and CYP6J1. Wen, Z., Scott, J.G. Insect Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Analysis of cross-reactive allergens from American and German cockroaches by human IgE. Wu, C.H., Luo, S.F., Wong, D.W. Allergy (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Detection and distribution patterns of telomerase activity in insects. Sasaki, T., Fujiwara, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Comparison of two bioassay methods for determining deltamethrin resistance in German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Choo, L.E., Tang, C.S., Pang, F.Y., Ho, S.H. J. Econ. Entomol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Relationship between the para-homologous sodium channel point mutation (g --> c at nucleotide 2979) and knockdown resistance in the German cockroach using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to discern genotype. Valles, S.M., Perera, O.P., Strong, C.A. J. Econ. Entomol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life. Khoo, J., Shek, L., Khor, E.S., Wang, D.Y., Lee, B.W. Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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