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Chemical Compound Review

GHM 8     molecular nitrogen; molecular oxygen

Synonyms: Ghm 10, AR-1J6809, AC1L3G9N, Hypoxic gas mixture, Oxigen-nitrogen mixture, ...
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Disease relevance of 37291-87-5

  • Hypoxic lactic acidosis was induced by ventilating dogs with an hypoxic gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen, resulting in arterial PO2 of less than 30 mmHg, pH below 7.20, bicarbonate less than 15 mM, and lactate greater than 7 mM [1].
  • In six dogs with papain-induced emphysema and in seven dogs without emphysema, LV mechanics were examined when a hypoxic gas mixture was inspired to reduce PO2 to about 35 mmHg (hypoxic study) and during nonhypoxic conditions (room air study) [2].
  • Fetal hypoxemia, induced by delivering a hypoxic gas mixture to the ewe, was characterized by a reduction in fetal PaO2 from 20.1 +/- 1.4 to 8.8 +/- 1.0 mm Hg (mean +/- SE) [3].
  • Acute hypoxia was induced during irradiation by ventilation of a hypoxic gas mixture containing 7.8-8.0% oxygen [4].
  • While breathing air, rats in nREMS showed postinspiratory diaphragmatic activity which was sustained or slightly increased while breathing a hypoxic gas mixture but was virtually abolished during hypercapnia [5].

Psychiatry related information on 37291-87-5


High impact information on 37291-87-5


Chemical compound and disease context of 37291-87-5

  • The right lung was ventilated continuously with 100% O2, while the left lung was either ventilated with 100% O2 ("hyperoxia") or ventilated with an hypoxic gas mixture ("hypoxia:" end-tidal PO2 approximately equal to 50.0 +/- 0.1 mmHg) [12].
  • Bilateral permeability edema was induced with 0.05 ml/kg oleic acid and after 4 h of LLL ventilation with an HGM (n = 9) LLL gross weight was 161 +/- 13 (SE) g compared with 204 +/- 13 (SE) g (P less than 0.05) in the right lower lobe (RLL) [13].
  • On the other hand, after ICV injection of GABA, breathing of hypoxic gas mixture (8% O(2)-92% N(2)) in both groups produced the hypoxic hyperventilation [14].

Biological context of 37291-87-5


Anatomical context of 37291-87-5

  • Intermittent exposure to a hypoxic gas mixture (0% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide, balance nitrogen) for 20 min with five repetitions demonstrated sustained constrictor responses in the presence or absence of endothelium [20].
  • We used isolated lungs and applied micropuncture and vascular occlusion techniques to measure pressure in 10- to 30-microns-diam venules and inflow occlusion and outflow occlusion pressures before and after the addition of the smooth muscle dilator papaverine or before and after inflation of the lungs with a hypoxic gas mixture [21].
  • The effect of inspiratory resistive loading on the electromyographic activity of the genioglossus muscle, the major dilating muscle of the pharynx, was studied in vagotomized and vagally intact rabbits during spontaneous breathing with a hypoxic gas mixture (10% O(2) in N(2)) or oxygen [22].
  • For this purpose, aortic endothelial cells (SVARECs) were submitted to hypoxic gas mixture [23].
  • Electromicroscopic studies of pulmonary perivascular mast cells showed that a 90-min exposure to the hypoxic gas mixture reduced the total number of granules per mast cell to 75% of control [24].

Associations of 37291-87-5 with other chemical compounds

  • The increase in perfusion pressure in response to 10 min ventilation with hypoxic gas mixture (5% O2) was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher after 0.25 almitrine (12.0 +/- 0.8 torr) than before addition of the drug (5.43 +/- 1.8 torr) [25].
  • The patients were studied before and after nifedipine (20 mg) or placebo, given sublingually, at room air and subsequently during inhalation of a hypoxic gas mixture containing 13% O2, 5% CO2 and 72% N2 [26].

Gene context of 37291-87-5


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of 37291-87-5


  1. Effects of dichloroacetate in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs. Graf, H., Leach, W., Arieff, A.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased left ventricular stiffness impairs filling in dogs with pulmonary emphysema in respiratory failure. Gomez, A., Mink, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Prostaglandin control of the renal circulation in response to hypoxemia in the fetal lamb in utero. Millard, R.W., Baig, H., Vatner, S.F. Circ. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Preoperative hypoxyradiotherapy of colorectal carcinoma. Tacev, T., Skricka, T., Zaloudík, J., Pacovský, Z. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Proprioceptive, chemoreceptive and sleep state modulation of expiratory muscle activity in the rat. Sherrey, J.H., Pollard, M.J., Megirian, D. Exp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. A possible role of endogenously formed cerebral prostaglandins in the development of adaptive protection against cerebral hypoxia/ischemia in mice. Masuda, Y., Ochi, Y., Ochi, Y., Kadokawa, T. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhaled nitric oxide. A selective pulmonary vasodilator reversing hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Frostell, C., Fratacci, M.D., Wain, J.C., Jones, R., Zapol, W.M. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of verapamil on pulmonary haemodynamics during hypoxaemia, at rest, and during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Brown, S.E., Linden, G.S., King, R.R., Blair, G.P., Stansbury, D.W., Light, R.W. Thorax (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Respiratory oscillations in discharge frequency of chemoreceptor afferents in sinus nerve and anaesthetized cats at normal and low arterial oxygen tensions. Band, D.M., Wolff, C.B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. CO modulates pulmonary vascular response to acute hypoxia: relation to endothelin. Zhang, F., Kaide, J.I., Yang, L., Jiang, H., Quan, S., Kemp, R., Gong, W., Balazy, M., Abraham, N.G., Nasjletti, A. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Modulation of radioprotective effects of respiratory hypoxia by changing the duration of hypoxia before irradiation and by combining hypoxia and administration of hemopoiesis-stimulating agents. Vacek, A., Tacev, T., Hofer, M. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Intravenous PGF2 alpha infusion does not enhance hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during canine one-lung hypoxia. Chen, L., Miller, F.L., Malmkvist, G., Cooley, R., Marshall, C., Marshall, B.E. Anesthesiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of regional alveolar hypoxia on permeability pulmonary edema formation in dogs. Cheney, F.W., Bishop, M.J., Chi, E.Y., Eisenstein, B.L. J. Appl. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate for hypoxic ventilatory response in anesthetized rabbits. Yelmen, K.N. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of the hypoxic ventilatory response during halothane anesthesia in cats. Ide, T., Sakurai, Y., Aono, M., Nishino, T. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Preservation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia compared to the conscious state in chronically instrumented dogs. Lesitsky, M.A., Davis, S., Murray, P.A. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Time course of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction after endotoxin infusion in unanesthetized sheep. Theissen, J.L., Loick, H.M., Curry, B.B., Traber, L.D., Herndon, D.N., Traber, D.L. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. The effects of depth on the cardiac and behavioural responses of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) during voluntary diving. Enstipp, M.R., Andrews, R.D., Jones, D.R. J. Exp. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Gas exchange during exercise in hypoxic ducks. Kiley, J.P., Faraci, F.M., Fedde, M.R. Respiration physiology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is not endothelium dependent. Marshall, C., Marshall, B.E. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of chronic hypoxia on pulmonary vascular pressures in isolated lungs of newborn pigs. Fike, C.D., Kaplowitz, M.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemoreceptor and vagal influences on genioglossal muscle responses to inspiratory resistive load. Aleksandrova, N.P. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypoxia enhances Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase activity and cell surface expression in endothelial cells: role of membrane lipids. Ledoux, S., Runembert, I., Koumanov, K., Michel, J.B., Trugnan, G., Friedlander, G. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in conscious sheep: role of mast cell degranulation. Ahmed, T., Oliver, W., Frank, B.L., Robinson, M.J., Wanner, A. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Almitrine in low dose potentiates vasoconstrictor responses of isolated rat lungs to moderate hypoxia. Falus, F., Herget, J., Hampl, V. Eur. Respir. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Nifedipine attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Burghuber, O.C. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition increases the potency of ANP in isolated rat pulmonary resistance vessels and isolated blood perfused lungs. Thompson, J.S., Morice, A.H. Pulmonary pharmacology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Human erythropoietin response to hypocapnic hypoxia, normocapnic hypoxia, and hypocapnic normoxia. Klausen, T., Christensen, H., Hansen, J.M., Nielsen, O.J., Fogh-Andersen, N., Olsen, N.V. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Repeated hypoxic exposures change respiratory chemoreflex control in humans. Mahamed, S., Duffin, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Hypoxic vasoconstriction in pulmonary arterioles and venules. Hillier, S.C., Graham, J.A., Hanger, C.C., Godbey, P.S., Glenny, R.W., Wagner, W.W. J. Appl. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Left ventricular dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a hypoxemic swine model. Shen, I., Levy, F.H., Benak, A.M., Rothnie, C.L., O'Rourke, P.P., Duncan, B.W., Verrier, E.D. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Factors affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular responses to hypercapnic hypoxia, in mallard ducks. Butler, P.J., Taylor, E.W. Respiration physiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Delivery of an hypoxic gas mixture due to a defective rubber seal of a flowmeter control tube. Hay, H. European journal of anaesthesiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
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