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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Punctures

  • This study used free-flow micropuncture to investigate bicarbonate reabsorption by surface nephron segments in a rat model of diuretic-induced alkalosis compared to control [1].
  • Simultaneous renal clearance studies and free-flow micropuncture studies of the superficial proximal tubule were performed on plasma-repleted Sprague-Dawley rats treated with acetazolamide, 50 mg/kg body weight [2].
  • To uncover the reasons for reported internephron heterogeneity in acute renal failure (ARF) serial micropuncture experiments in norepinephrine-induced ARF and sham-infused control rats were carried out to investigate this phenomenon [3].
  • In this study, micropuncture experiments were performed to examine the segmental reabsorption of bicarbonate and chloride in the normal dog kidney (stage 1) and in the remnant kidney (stage 3) of dogs with experimental renal failure [4].
  • Regardless of the presence of indomethacin, location of vessels used for micropuncture, or level of left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure was the only measured vascular pressure that increased with hypoxia in adult lungs [5].

High impact information on Punctures

  • First, micropuncture experiments in mice demonstrated increased reabsorption of Na+ and Ca2+ in the proximal tubule during chronic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) treatment, whereas Ca2+ reabsorption in distal convolution appeared unaffected [6].
  • The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture [7].
  • Interaction between alpha 2-adrenergic and angiotensin II systems in the control of glomerular hemodynamics as assessed by renal micropuncture in the rat [7].
  • Whole-kidney and micropuncture measurements of GFR, FLHCO3, and whole-kidney and proximal tubule HCO3 reabsorption (APRHCO3) were coupled with BBMV measurements of H+ gradient-driven 22Na+ uptake in each animal studied [8].
  • To determine whether enhanced prostaglandins synthesis was responsible for the altered regulation of PG in Nx glomeruli, we repeated the micropuncture measurements in a setting of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Punctures


Biological context of Punctures


Anatomical context of Punctures

  • We investigated the possibility that ABP might exist in monkey and man using the cytosol of testicular and epididymal homogenates and aspirates obtained by direct micropuncture of the rete testis [20].
  • Pressures in glomerular capillaries (PG) and bowman's space (Pt) were measured with a servo-nulling device, systemic (piA) and efferent arteriolar oncotic pressures (piE) were measured by microprotein methods, and nephron plasma flow (rpf) and sngfr were measured by micropuncture techniques in both control and post-AGBM Ab conditions in each rat [21].
  • The ability of methotrexate (MTX) to pass from the blood into the interstitial space and seminiferous tubule of the rat was investigated using testicular micropuncture [22].
  • Although the renal clearance of lithium is widely used as an index of sodium and water delivery to the end of the proximal tubule, micropuncture studies of superficial nephrons suggest that lithium may be reabsorbed additionally in the loop of Henle [23].
  • Loop of Henle chloride reabsorption (measured by recollection micropuncture) and PRA were determined before and after acute infusion of CPMD (N = 8) or vehicle (N = 8) [24].

Associations of Punctures with chemical compounds

  • Micropuncture during the nonhypertensive period revealed increases in afferent (65%) and efferent (82%) arteriolar resistances, thereby reducing nephron plasma flow rate [25].
  • Cortical and papillary micropuncture examination of chloride transport in segments of the rat kidney during inhibition of prostaglandin production. Possible role for prostaglandins in the chloruresis of acute volume expansion [26].
  • A micropuncture study of the early phase of acute urate nephropathy [27].
  • To examine the predictions of this hypothesis, rats dialyzed against 0.15 M NaHCO3 to produce CDA and controls, CON, dialyzed against Ringer-HCO3 were infused with either 6% albumin (VE) or 80 mM non-sodium chloride salts (CC) added to 5% dextrose (DX) and studied by micropuncture [28].
  • These segments may, therefore, contribute significantly to the high urea concentration found at the bend of Henle's loop by micropuncture [29].

Gene context of Punctures

  • In vivo micropuncture revealed that early distal bicarbonate concentration was elevated in both bicarbonate-loaded and NHE3(-/-) mice [30].
  • In vivo micropuncture experiments were performed under anesthesia in A1AR-deficient and wild-type littermate mice to study the effects of chronic absence of A1AR on fluid and Na(+) reabsorption along the nephron, as well as the functional consequences at the single-nephron level of the lack TGF [31].
  • To examine these possibilities, micropuncture and clearance experiments were performed on nine anesthetized dogs evaluating renal and glomerular hemodynamics before and during the administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (SQ20,881) [32].
  • During the micropuncture measurements, renal arterial pressure was reduced to range of 85 to 90 mm Hg in order to maximize renin secretion and intrarenal formation of angiotensin II [32].
  • Micropuncture localization of kallikrein secretion in the rat nephron [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Punctures

  • Micropuncture studies were performed in control rats (C, N = 8) and rats subjected to acute volume expansion (VE, N = 8) or reduced renal perfusion pressure (RRP, N = 7) [34].
  • We investigated the effects of suppressing inflammation with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on glomerular hemodynamics, arteriolar structural changes, and renal histologic injury in rats with subtotal renal ablation METHODS: Micropuncture studies were performed 30 days after 5/6 nephrectomy in rats untreated and treated with MMF (30 mg/kg/day) [35].
  • To investigate the effects of KD on renal tubular reabsorption of chloride, balance, clearance, micropuncture, and microinjection studies were performed on potassium-depleted rats [36].
  • Iothalamate measured by capillary electrophoresis is a suitable alternative to radiolabeled inulin in renal micropuncture [37].
  • Previous administration of CdA (1.0 mg/kg, 48 hr before micropuncture) increased the level of circulating Cd-metallothioneins, as measured by radioimmunoassay, but did not affect the luminal tubular uptake of Cd during CdA infusion [38].


  1. Augmented bicarbonate reabsorption by both the proximal and distal nephron maintains chloride-deplete metabolic alkalosis in rats. Wesson, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of acute hypercapnia on renal and proximal tubular total carbon dioxide reabsorption in the acetazolamide-treated rat. Winaver, J., Walker, K.A., Kunau, R.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Nephron heterogeneity in ischemic acute renal failure. Conger, J.D., Robinette, J.B., Kelleher, S.P. Kidney Int. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Tubular handling of bicarbonate in dogs with experimental renal failure. Wong, N.L., Quamme, G.A., Dirks, J.H. Kidney Int. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental differences in vascular responses to hypoxia in lungs of rabbits. Fike, C.D., Kaplowitz, M.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Enhanced passive Ca2+ reabsorption and reduced Mg2+ channel abundance explains thiazide-induced hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. Nijenhuis, T., Vallon, V., van der Kemp, A.W., Loffing, J., Hoenderop, J.G., Bindels, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Interaction between alpha 2-adrenergic and angiotensin II systems in the control of glomerular hemodynamics as assessed by renal micropuncture in the rat. Thomson, S.C., Gabbai, F.B., Tucker, B.J., Blantz, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of acute changes in glomerular filtration rate on Na+/H+ exchange in rat renal cortex. Maddox, D.A., Fortin, S.M., Tartini, A., Barnes, W.D., Gennari, F.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure in the rat remnant nephron. Pelayo, J.C., Westcott, J.Y. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. A micropuncture study of proximal tubular function after acute hydrochlorothiazide administration to Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus. Walter, S.J., Laycock, J.F., Shirley, D.G. Clin. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Renal handling of endogenous lithium in experimental diabetes mellitus in the rat. Pollock, C.A., Field, M.J. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of angiotensin on glomerular filtration of albumin. Eisenbach, G.M., Van Liew, J.B. Contributions to nephrology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Glomerular tubular balance of renal D-glucose transport during hyperglycemia: clearance and micropuncture studies on its characterisation at saturated transport conditions. von Baeyer, H., Haeberle, D.A., van Liew, J.B., Hare, D. Pflugers Arch. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Lowering of interstitial fluid pressure in rat trachea after substance P alone and in combination with calcitonin gene-related peptide. Gjerde, E.A., Karlsen, T.V., Reed, R.K. Acta Physiol. Scand. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Response of adenylate cyclase to parathyroid hormone and prostaglandins by human isolated glomeruli. Ardaillou, N., Nivez, M.P., Schambelan, M., Ardaillou, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of chronic prolactin administration on renal hemodynamics in the rat. Baylis, C., Badr, K., Collins, R. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Renal tubular site and mechanism of clonidine-induced diuresis in rats: clearance and micropuncture studies. Barr, J.G., Kauker, M.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Handling of calcium by the ferret submandibular gland. Mangos, J.A., Boyd, R.L., Loughlin, G.M., Cockrell, A., Fucci, R. J. Dent. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Lack of effect of barbiturate and ketamine anesthesia on renal blood flow in chronically instrumented rats prepared for micropuncture. Cupples, W.A., Veress, A.T., Sonnenberg, H. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Androgen binding proteins of testis, epididymis, and plasma in man and monkey. Vigersky, R.A., Loriaux, D.L., Howards, S.S., Hodgen, G.B., Lipsett, M.B., Chrambach, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Acute effects of antiglomerular basement membrane antibody on the process of glomerular filtration in the rat. Blantz, R.C., Wilson, C.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Methotrexate levels in the interstitial space and seminiferous tubule of rat testis. Riccardi, R., Vigersky, R.A., Barnes, S., Bleyer, W.A., Poplack, D.G. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Simulation of lithium transport along the thin segments of Henle's loop. Taniguchi, J., Shirley, D.G., Walter, S.J., Imai, M. Kidney Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of chlorpropamide on loop of Henle function and plasma renin. Welch, W.J., Ott, C.E., Lorenz, J.N., Kotchen, T.A. Kidney Int. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Mesangial cell, glomerular and renal vascular responses to endothelin in the rat kidney. Elucidation of signal transduction pathways. Badr, K.F., Murray, J.J., Breyer, M.D., Takahashi, K., Inagami, T., Harris, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Cortical and papillary micropuncture examination of chloride transport in segments of the rat kidney during inhibition of prostaglandin production. Possible role for prostaglandins in the chloruresis of acute volume expansion. Higashihara, E., Stokes, J.B., Kokko, J.P., Campbell, W.B., DuBose, T.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. A micropuncture study of the early phase of acute urate nephropathy. Conger, J.D., Falk, S.A., Guggenheim, S.J., Burke, T.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of chloride and extracellular fluid volume on bicarbonate reabsorption along the nephron in metabolic alkalosis in the rat. Reassessment of the classical hypothesis of the pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis. Galla, J.H., Bonduris, D.N., Luke, R.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Urea secretion by the straight segment of the proximal tubule. Kawamura, S., Kokko, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. NHE2-mediated bicarbonate reabsorption in the distal tubule of NHE3 null mice. Bailey, M.A., Giebisch, G., Abbiati, T., Aronson, P.S., Gawenis, L.R., Shull, G.E., Wang, T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Functional consequences at the single-nephron level of the lack of adenosine A1 receptors and tubuloglomerular feedback in mice. Vallon, V., Richter, K., Huang, D.Y., Rieg, T., Schnermann, J. Pflugers Arch. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Glomerular and renal hemodynamics during converting enzyme inhibition (SQ20,881) in the dog. Navar, L.G., LaGrange, R.A., Bell, P.D., Thomas, C.E., Ploth, D.W. Hypertension (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Micropuncture localization of kallikrein secretion in the rat nephron. Beasley, D., Oza, N.B., Levinsky, N.G. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of reduced renal perfusion pressure and acute volume expansion on proximal tubule and whole kidney angiotensin II content in the rat. Boer, W.H., Braam, B., Fransen, R., Boer, P., Koomans, H.A. Kidney Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Mycophenolate mofetil prevents arteriolopathy and renal injury in subtotal ablation despite persistent hypertension. Tapia, E., Franco, M., Sánchez-Lozada, L.G., Soto, V., Avila-Casado, C., Santamaría, J., Quiroz, Y., Rodríguez-Iturbe, B., Herrera-Acosta, J. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of potassium depletion on renal tubular chloride transport in the rat. Luke, R.G., Wright, F.S., Fowler, N., Kashgarian, M., Giebisch, G.H. Kidney Int. (1978) [Pubmed]
  37. Iothalamate measured by capillary electrophoresis is a suitable alternative to radiolabeled inulin in renal micropuncture. Capasso, G., Unwin, R.J., Pica, A., Quagliuolo, L., Giovane, A. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Fate of cadmium in rat renal tubules: a micropuncture study. Felley-Bosco, E., Diezi, J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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