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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Immersion

  • The authors investigated the contribution of gap-junctional communication to cell death using an in vitro ischemia model, which was reproduced by submersion of organotypic hippocampal slices into glucose-free deoxygenated medium [1].
  • Submersion of eggs in .1% mercuric chloride solution for 1 h followed by submersion in 70% ethanol for 30 min resulted in an eggshell surface from which no Salmonella organisms were recovered [2].
  • Sections of leaves (ca. 0.5 by 0.5 cm) were inoculated by submersion in a suspension of E. coli O157:H7 (ca. 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml) overnight at 7 degrees C. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled antibody was used to visualize the attached bacteria [3].
  • Seven healthy adult volunteers underwent 30-second facial immersions in ice water before and during 36 minutes exposure to intense ambient heat (68 degrees C) on separate, non-consecutive days: one normovolemic and the second with thiazide-induced, 10% hypovolemia [4].
  • Hyperventilation, a normal occurrence while swimming, may predispose patients with epilepsy to seizures and submersion accidents by increasing the propensity to seizures [5].

Psychiatry related information on Immersion

  • Before and after adenosine was given, the authors evaluated the cold pain rating of the foot (submersion in ice water for 1 min), the forearm ischemic pain rating during a 30-min tourniquet test, and the thermal and tactile pain thresholds on healthy and inflamed skin after application of mustard oil (4 min) to the calf [6].

High impact information on Immersion

  • TSLP had comitogenic activity for fetal thymocytes, but was not as potent as interleukin 7 in lobe submersion cultures [7].
  • The addition of flt3L + IL-7 to lobe submersion cultures of murine fetal thymic lobes resulted in the expansion of an immature population of Thy-1(low), CD44(high), HSA(high) cells [8].
  • To test the idea that alpha beta T cell development is correlated with NF-kappa B and TCF1(alpha) activity, we conducted additional experiments in a submersion culture system in which the generation of alpha beta T cells can be manipulated [9].
  • Histamine-release curves were obtained following ice-water submersion before and after cyproheptadine therapy [10].
  • These surfaces were functionalized with a negative charge using 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), followed by alternating immersions in cationic redox polymer solutions and anionic glucose oxidase (GOX) or lactate oxidase (LAX) solutions to build the nanocomposite structure [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Immersion


Biological context of Immersion

  • Early murine fetal thymocytes express functional, high affinity IL-2 receptors as determined by: (i) the presence of IL-2R beta chain (p75) mRNA; (ii) IL-2 (10 U/ml) induced cell proliferation/cellular maturation in lobe submersion cultures (LSC) [13].
  • Experiments were performed to determine the factors responsible for the differences in heart rate and blood flow to the leg between ducks after 60 sec head submersion and those spontaneously breathing a hypercapnic hypoxic gas mixture; blood gases were similar in both cases [14].
  • We conclude that long-term water submersion has endocrine as well as plasma volume effects that are opposite to those seen after short-term immersion, and which increases plasma adrenomedullin [15].
  • It is suggested that adrenal catecholamines increase tolerance to underwater submersion by enhancing peripheral vasoconstriction, thus preserving the O2 stores for the heart and brain [16].
  • The new methods employ faster, less toxic embalming and reduced or eliminated phenoxyethanol immersions [17].

Anatomical context of Immersion

  • Brief immersions of 20 min were used to determine the most sensitive stages and to establish dose-effect curves: a 20 min treatment with 3 mM suramin at stages 7-8.5 produces blastula-like embryos, never classified before, with atypical epidermis, cells full of yolk and mesenchyme in between [18].
  • We conclude that in this in vivo, anesthetized preparation including three hot water tail immersions, beta-endorphin can be released into a ventriculo-cisternal perfusate, by activation of the central axons of small primary afferent neurons by capsaicin [19].
  • Slices cut in the coronal plane at the level of the anterior commissure were equilibrated for 1 h at 35 degrees C in a submersion chamber perfused with oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid [20].
  • In Part I, attempts were made to initiate the formation of a new attachment by surgical debridement, crown removal (coronectomy) and submersion of the vital root below the mucosa [21].
  • AIM: To elucidate the role of core and skin thermoreceptors in the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), a sequence of two experiments using whole-body (head-out) and partial (one forearm) hot water immersions was performed [22].

Associations of Immersion with chemical compounds


Gene context of Immersion

  • The GH concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the immersions (min 10; 39 degrees C: 1.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1), P < 0.01; 38 degrees C: 0.19 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.03, P < 0.05) and peaked after their completion (39 degrees C: +10 min, 3.7 +/- 2.0, P < 0.001; 38 degrees C: +15 min, 0.86 +/- 0.61, P < 0.01) [22].
  • Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions [22].
  • These data support an increased risk of submersion and drowning among children with epilepsy [26].
  • Also, for similar displacement in T(es), the subjects perceived the immersions at 6 ATA to be less cold than those at 1 ATA (P < 0.05) [27].
  • At postnatal day 85, rats made hypoxic by submersion of the uterine horn had decreased olfactory bulb weight [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Immersion

  • All aliquots from the same ejaculate contained final vol/vol 6% glycerol, had equal sperm density, and had undergone centrifugation for 5 minutes at 600 x g before buffer:semen ratio adjustment and standard precooling protocol for submersion in liquid nitrogen [29].
  • Although the dive response does not sequester blood oxygen exclusively for brain and heart metabolism during aerobic dives, as it does during forced submersion, a reduction in Vb and muscle perfusion below resting levels is necessary to maximize the ADL over the range of diving VO2 (approximately 2-9 ml O2 min-1 kg-1) [30].
  • Kidney length, width and volume were measured by DMSA scintigraphy in 10 piglets in vivo and compared with measurements on excised kidneys using callipers, planar scintigraphy and submersion in water [31].
  • These data indicate the time needed for hydrogel contact lenses to reach their maximum water content after removal from the eye and submersion in maintenance solution [32].
  • A diagnosis of abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical bathtub immersions in the absence of epilepsy and developmental delay [33].


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  2. Research note: growth of Salmonella enteritidis in Grade A eggs during prolonged storage. Hammack, T.S., Sherrod, P.S., Bruce, V.R., June, G.A., Satchell, F.B., Andrews, W.H. Poult. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to lettuce leaf surface and bacterial viability in response to chlorine treatment as demonstrated by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Seo, K.H., Frank, J.F. J. Food Prot. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The attenuating effect of heat and hypovolemia on the human diving response. Arnold, R.W., Nadel, E.R. Alaska medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Submersion accidents in children with epilepsy. Orlowski, J.P., Rothner, A.D., Lueders, H. Am. J. Dis. Child. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Intrathecal adenosine administration: a phase 1 clinical safety study in healthy volunteers, with additional evaluation of its influence on sensory thresholds and experimental pain. Rane, K., Segerdahl, M., Goiny, M., Sollevi, A. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of a novel murine lymphoid growth factor. Sims, J.E., Williams, D.E., Morrissey, P.J., Garka, K., Foxworthe, D., Price, V., Friend, S.L., Farr, A., Bedell, M.A., Jenkins, N.A., Copeland, N.G., Grabstein, K., Paxton, R.J. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Flt3 ligand plus IL-7 supports the expansion of murine thymic B cell progenitors that can mature intrathymically. McKenna, H.J., Morrissey, P.J. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Antioxidant treatment of thymic organ cultures decreases NF-kappa B and TCF1(alpha) transcription factor activities and inhibits alpha beta T cell development. Ivanov, V., Merkenschlager, M., Ceredig, R. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of cyproheptadine in the treatment of cold urticaria. Sigler, R.W., Evans, R., Horakova, Z., Ottesen, E., Kaplan, A.P. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucose and lactate biosensors based on redox polymer/oxidoreductase nanocomposite thin films. Sirkar, K., Revzin, A., Pishko, M.V. Anal. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Elimination of Salmonella spp. by lactic acid. Mikołajczyk, A., Radkowski, M. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Intoxication of high affinity IL-2 receptor positive thymocytes blocks early stages of T cell maturation. Maslinski, W., Murphy, J.R., Strom, T.B. Int. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Factors affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular responses to hypercapnic hypoxia, in mallard ducks. Butler, P.J., Taylor, E.W. Respiration physiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Adrenomedullin and elements of orthostatic competence after 41 h of voluntary submersion in water as measured in four healthy males. Loder, I., Rössler, A., Wurzinger, G., Duncko, R., Jezova, D., Hinghofer-Szalkay, H. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of adrenal catecholamines during forced submergence in ducks. Lacombe, A.M., Jones, D.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Phenoxyethanol as a nontoxic preservative in the dissection laboratory. Wineski, L.E., English, A.W. Acta anatomica. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Suramin and heparin: aspecific inhibitors of mesoderm induction in the Xenopus laevis embryo. Cardellini, P., Polo, C., Coral, S. Mech. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Release of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity into ventriculo-cisternal perfusate by lumbar intrathecal capsaicin in the rat. Bach, F.W., Yaksh, T.L. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. The applicability of brain slice methodology to the study of focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat: an evaluation. Lye, R.H., Clough, P.H. J. Neurosci. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Histologic evaluation of new attachment in humans. A preliminary report. Bowers, G.M., Granet, M., Stevens, M., Emerson, J., Corio, R., Mellonig, J., Lewis, S.B., Peltzman, B., Romberg, E., Risom, L. J. Periodontol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions. Koska, J., Rovensky, J., Zimanova, T., Vigas, M. Acta Physiol. Scand. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Sympathetic nervous system activity during skin cooling in humans: relationship to stimulus intensity and pain sensation. Kregel, K.C., Seals, D.R., Callister, R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Enamel microhardness change and plaque pH measurements in an intra-oral model in humans. Essig, M.E., Bodden, W.R., Bradley, E.L., Koulourides, T., Housch, T. J. Dent. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Improved MR images of arterial specimens by submersion in trichlorotrifluoroethane. Chu, K.C., Martin, A.J., Rutt, B.K. Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Epilepsy as a risk factor for submersion injury in children. Diekema, D.S., Quan, L., Holt, V.L. Pediatrics (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Nitrogen narcosis attenuates shivering thermogenesis. Mekjavić, I.B., Savić, S.A., Eiken, O. J. Appl. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of ischemia-hypoxia induced by interruption of uterine blood flow on fetal rat liver and brain enzyme activities and offspring behavior. Binienda, Z., Holson, R.R., Chen, F.X., Oriaku, E., Kim, C.S., Flynn, T.J., Slikker, W., Paule, M.G., Feuers, R.J., Ferguson, S.A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Custom cryopreservation of human semen. Kolon, T.F., Philips, K.A., Buch, J.P. Fertil. Steril. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Convective oxygen transport and tissue oxygen consumption in Weddell seals during aerobic dives. Davis, R.W., Kanatous, S.B. J. Exp. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Kidney size estimation in piglets using dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Wallin, L., Thörne, J., Palmer, J., Bajc, M. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Recovery of the water content of hydrogel contact lenses after use. Cabrera, J.V., Velasco, M.J. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Accidents and child abuse in bathtub submersions. Kemp, A.M., Mott, A.M., Sibert, J.R. Arch. Dis. Child. (1994) [Pubmed]
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