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Chemical Compound Review

CYCOCEL     2-chloroethyl-trimethyl- azanium chloride

Synonyms: Cyclocel, Farmacel, Helstone, Increcel, Stabilan, ...
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Disease relevance of Chlormequat


High impact information on Chlormequat

  • The present data show that the wild-type genes of two members of the Halloween family of embryonic lethals, disembodied (dib) and shadow (sad), code for mitochondrial cytochromes P450 that mediate the last two hydroxylation reactions in the ecdysteroidogenic pathway in Drosophila, namely the C22- and C2-hydroxylases [6].
  • Recently, members of the Drosophila Halloween group of genes, that are required for embryonic viability and cuticle deposition, have been shown to code for several cytochrome P450 enzymes that catalyze the terminal hydroxylation steps in the conversion of cholesterol to the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone [7].
  • Safety of inhalation of a 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix: a prospective survey of 35 828 administrations [8].
  • Some of these genes were previously placed in the so-called 'Halloween-group' and were shown to affect ecdysone synthesis during embryogenesis [9].
  • Here we demonstrate that the Halloween mutations not only affect glial differentiation but also lead to an increase in the number of midline glial cells, suggesting that during embryogenesis ecdysone signaling is required to adjust glial cell number similar to pupal stages [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chlormequat


Biological context of Chlormequat

  • Competitive binding of acetate and chloride anions reflects the higher charge density of chloride, which forms the dominant clusters with mepiquat and chlormequat [14].
  • An extruded blend of 44% crude protein soybean meal (50%), whole sunflower seeds (45%), and premix (5%) was evaluated as a protein and energy source for dairy cows in early lactation [15].
  • The results indicate that these Halloween genes are transcriptionally regulated to support the high biosynthetic activity that produces the cyclic ecdysteroid pulses triggering moulting [16].
  • Early antibody responses were increased by CCC treatment except in the 10 mg/kg body wt/day treatment group in which titers were decreased [13].
  • A selenium rich premix added to the rations of the sows in the second half of gestation was the origin of this selenium intoxication [17].

Anatomical context of Chlormequat

  • In this study we have evaluated and compared the effects of some commercially available serum substitute media (10% NU Serum, 10% BMS, 2% Ultroser HY, 1% ITS + Premix, 1% Nutridoma, Ultradoma, FEB100, DCCM1 and DCCM2) on growth and immunoglobulin production in different hybridoma cell lines [18].
  • Toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of chlormequat in the stomach contents and urine [19].
  • CCC significantly reduced plasma proteins, PFCs/g of spleen, lymphocyte viability and hemolysin titers [20].
  • IVOMEC premix given to pregnant gilts prevented shedding of larvae in sow milk, egg output in feces and the establishment of S. ransomi in piglets [21].
  • These experiments showed that epididymal spermatozoa from mice on feed or water containing chlormequat had compromised fertilizing competence in vitro, while reproduction in female mice was not compromised [22].

Associations of Chlormequat with other chemical compounds

  • Conditions for the simultaneous determination of the three herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat and the two plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (ion-trap) using electrospray as ionisation source have been established [23].
  • When the two premixes were administered in the feed for 5 days as treatments for MG-infected chickens, tylosin Premix A was significantly more effective than tylosin Premix B, as measured by reductions in mortality, air sac lesions, and infection as indicated by development of MG antibody [24].
  • The administration of monensin either as a CRC or a premix had no effect on ruminal pH characteristics [25].
  • A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic (MECC) method for quantitation of penicillin G in medicated premix feeds was compared with the AOAC microbiological cylinder plate method [26].
  • In all cases, phytase supplementation levels were based on an assessment of phytase premix activity (i.e., P release from Na phytate at pH 5.5) [27].

Gene context of Chlormequat

  • In addition, Drosophila Cyp307a1 is encoded in the spook locus, one of the Halloween mutant family members showing a low ecdysone titer in vivo, suggesting that Cyp307a1 is involved in ecdysone synthesis [28].
  • The final four sequential hydroxylations of steroid precursors into the active ecdysteroid of insects, 20E (20-hydroxyecdysone), are mediated by four cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, encoded by genes in the Halloween family [16].
  • This percentage was increased by supplementing the basal medium with free amino acids, but not a premix of insulin/transferrin/selenium (ITS) [29].
  • AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of premixed insulin aspart (30% free and 70% protamine-bound, BIAsp 30) with human insulin premix (BHI 30) used in a twice-daily injection regimen in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes [30].
  • We report the identification and developmental expression of the Halloween gene shade (shd; CYP314A1) that encodes the E20MO in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chlormequat

  • In this study, we report the successful use of an ITS+ Premix-supplemented serum-free media for prolonged islet culture and its comparison to fetal bovine serum-supplemented media and to cryopreservation [32].
  • Optimisation of ion trap parameters for the quantification of chlormequat by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the application in the analysis of pear extracts [33].
  • The oxidation of Cu(CN)4(3-) by iron-(VI) (FeVIO4(2-), Fe(VI)) and iron(V) (FeVO4(3-), Fe(V)) was studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques [34].
  • Current methods for quantitative determination of chlormequat residues in food crops are characterized by rather low recoveries and the need for derivatization (in case of gas chromatography, GC), or by high capital investment (in case of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, LC-MS) [35].
  • A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of paraquat (PQ), deiquat (DQ), chlormequat (CQ) and mepiquat (MQ) in water samples by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) [36].


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