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MeSH Review

Air Sacs

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Disease relevance of Air Sacs

  • More E coli was found in lungs, air sacs, and livers of turkeys exposed to NH3 [1].
  • We have tested the potential of a single dose of ethanol (0.20 ml 50% ethanol in chick Ringer's saline (CRS) administered into the air sac) to produce ventricular septal defect (VSD) in three distinct commercially available strains of White Leghorn chick embryo: stress-resistant Dekalb Delta strain, Hy-Vac SPF type V, and Hy-Vac SPF type L [2].
  • Histologic lesions in air sacs with gross scores of 0-2 were mild edema resulting in a two to eightfold increase in air sac thickness, capillary proliferation, and exudate consisting largely of heterophils and necrotic debris [3].
  • Histologic lesions in air sacs with gross scores of 3 and 4 were marked hyperplasia of epithelial cells and diffuse infiltration of the air sac connective tissue by mononuclear cells [3].
  • We have recently reported that culture medium with murine neuroblastoma C1300 cells transfected with OPN gene significantly stimulates human umbilical vein endothelial cell migration and induces neovascularization in mice by dorsal air sac assay [4].

Psychiatry related information on Air Sacs

  • These results indicate that swimbladders in adults of both sexes retain the ability to respond to steroid treatments and suggest that sexual differences in bladder size are controlled without a critical period by hormonal concentrations within the fish [5].

High impact information on Air Sacs

  • The sonic motor nucleus was labeled by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into swimbladder sonic muscles, and an adjacent ventrolateral and a more anterior periventricular nucleus of the medulla were revealed by autoradiography with 3H-labeled testosterone [6].
  • Expression of sFlt-1 significantly suppressed RMG-1 cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the mouse dorsal air sac assay model [7].
  • We investigated the effect of TPI on angiogenesis in KB cells transfected with platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor cDNA, KB/TP, and a mock transfectant, KB/CV, using the mouse dorsal air sac assay model [8].
  • Oral administration of E7820 significantly inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel implants and human colon WiDr tumor-induced angiogenesis in a dorsal air sac model [9].
  • To demonstrate the effect of OPN on tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo, millipore chambers containing OPN-transfected or control cells were implanted to the dorsal air sac of mice [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Air Sacs


Biological context of Air Sacs


Anatomical context of Air Sacs


Associations of Air Sacs with chemical compounds

  • In vivo experiments showed that thiolutin significantly suppressed angiogenesis induced by tumor cells (S-180), a pathological form of neovascularization, in a mouse dorsal air sac assay system [22].
  • Ethanol (10 mg/50 microliters) was administered to embryos via the air sac from E1 to E3 [23].
  • We investigated the endocrine basis for sexual dimorphism of the sound-producing apparatus (swimbladder and attached sonic muscles) in the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau by implanting steroid pellets in gonadectomized females and males [5].
  • Transneuronal biocytin transport identified an extensive premotor network only for the swimbladder motor nuclei [24].
  • Because tetrapyrrole concentrations are elevated in these conditions, we introduced bilirubin or heme (prepared as 10 mM solutions) into the air sac of fertilized chicken eggs to study their effect on the growth of normal chicken embryos [25].

Gene context of Air Sacs

  • Nitrergic and VIP-positive sensory innervation was found to be shared by gill and air sac [26].
  • Dorsal air sac assay revealed that UFT, 5-FU, and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid strongly inhibited the angiogenesis induced by recombinant human VEGF [27].
  • The presence of SP-A in the goldfish swimbladder demonstrates a role for the surfactant system in an organ that is no longer used for airbreathing [28].
  • 3. The swimbladder achieves tremendous twitch speeds with a modest steady-state ATP utilization rate by employing two mechanisms: having a small number of attached crossbridges and probably utilizing intracellular Ca2+ buffers (parvalbumin) to spread out the time over which Ca2+ pumping can occur [29].
  • The appearance of the alpha RYR isoform alone in the extraocular muscles and a fast-contracting sonic muscle in fish (toadfish swimbladder muscle) provides evidence that this isoform is selectively expressed when rapid contraction is required [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Air Sacs

  • Western blot analysis demonstrated cross-reactivity between an antihuman SP-A antibody and material lavaged from lungs or swimbladders of members from all vertebrate groups [28].
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of enkephalins, VIP, NOS and NADPH-d in nerves associated with branchial and air sac vasculature, and in the neuroendocrine cell systems of the gill [26].


  1. Effect of ammonia on the quantitative clearance of Escherichia coli from lungs, air sacs, and livers of turkeys aerosol vaccinated against Escherichia coli. Nagaraja, K.V., Emery, D.A., Jordan, K.A., Sivanandan, V., Newman, J.A., Pomeroy, B.S. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Strain-dependent effect of ethanol on ventricular septal defect frequency in White Leghorn chick embryos. Bruyere, H.J., Stith, C.E. Teratology (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Histology of air sac lesions induced in chickens by contact exposure to Mycoplasma synoviae. Fletcher, O.J., Anderson, D.P., Kleven, S.H. Vet. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Osteopontin overproduced by tumor cells acts as a potent angiogenic factor contributing to tumor growth. Hirama, M., Takahashi, F., Takahashi, K., Akutagawa, S., Shimizu, K., Soma, S., Shimanuki, Y., Nishio, K., Fukuchi, Y. Cancer Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Hormonal basis for sexual dimorphism of the sound-producing apparatus of the oyster toadfish. Fine, M.L., Pennypacker, K.R. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Testosterone uptake in the brainstem of a sound-producing fish. Fine, M.L., Keefer, D.A., Leichnetz, G.R. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Soluble FLT-1 expression suppresses carcinomatous ascites in nude mice bearing ovarian cancer. Hasumi, Y., Mizukami, H., Urabe, M., Kohno, T., Takeuchi, K., Kume, A., Momoeda, M., Yoshikawa, H., Tsuruo, T., Shibuya, M., Taketani, Y., Ozawa, K. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor on angiogenesis and apoptosis in tumors. Matsushita, S., Nitanda, T., Furukawa, T., Sumizawa, T., Tani, A., Nishimoto, K., Akiba, S., Miyadera, K., Fukushima, M., Yamada, Y., Yoshida, H., Kanzaki, T., Akiyama, S. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. An angiogenesis inhibitor E7820 shows broad-spectrum tumor growth inhibition in a xenograft model: possible value of integrin alpha2 on platelets as a biological marker. Semba, T., Funahashi, Y., Ono, N., Yamamoto, Y., Sugi, N.H., Asada, M., Yoshimatsu, K., Wakabayashi, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Osteopontin induces angiogenesis of murine neuroblastoma cells in mice. Takahashi, F., Akutagawa, S., Fukumoto, H., Tsukiyama, S., Ohe, Y., Takahashi, K., Fukuchi, Y., Saijo, N., Nishio, K. Int. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Adriamycin effects on the chick embryo. Mortell, A., Giles, J., Bannigan, J., Puri, P. Pediatr. Surg. Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Water and lactate movement in the swimbladder of the eel, Anguilla anguilla. Kobayashi, H., Pelster, B., Scheid, P. Respiration physiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Caudal thoracic air sac cannulation in zebra finches for isoflurane anesthesia. Nilson, P.C., Teramitsu, I., White, S.A. J. Neurosci. Methods (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Capillaries phosphorylate glucose in a concentration-dependent manner through a glucokinase-like enzyme: a study in the eel. Belfiore, F., Iannello, S., Campione, R., Volpicelli, G. Biochem. Med. Metab. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of ventilation in running birds: effects of hypoxia, hyperoxia, and CO2. Brackenbury, J.H., Gleeson, M., Avery, P. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. The amino acid sequence of the parvalbumin from the very fast swimbladder muscle of the toadfish (Opsanus tau). Gerday, C., Collin, S., Gerardin-Otthiers, N. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Modulation of surfactant protein D expression by glucocorticoids in fetal rat lung. Mariencheck, W., Crouch, E. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin influence neuronal expression in developing chick brain. II. Cholinergic neurons. Kentroti, S., Vernadakis, A. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytochemical study of the lamellar bodies in the swimbladder of the toadfish Opsanus tau L. Morris, S.M., Albright, J.T. Cell Tissue Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Ultrastructural distribution of terbium across capillary endothelium: detection by electron spectroscopic imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Wagner, R.C., Chen, S.C. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Autonomic nerve control of the swimbladder of the goldsinny wrasse, Ctenolabrus rupestris. Fänge, R., Holmgren, S., Nilsson, S. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Thiolutin, an inhibitor of HUVEC adhesion to vitronectin, reduces paxillin in HUVECs and suppresses tumor cell-induced angiogenesis. Minamiguchi, K., Kumagai, H., Masuda, T., Kawada, M., Ishizuka, M., Takeuchi, T. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Ethanol administration during early embryogenesis affects neuronal phenotypes at a time when neuroblasts are pluripotential. Kentroti, S., Vernadakis, A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Sonic/vocal-acousticolateralis pathways in teleost fishes: a transneuronal biocytin study in mochokid catfish. Ladich, F., Bass, A.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Bilirubin and heme as growth inhibitors of chicken embryos in ovo. Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R., Foster, P., Oyedeji, C.O. Pediatr. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. NANC nerves in the respiratory air sac and branchial vasculature of the Indian catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Zaccone, G., Ainis, L., Mauceri, A., Lo Cascio, P., Lo Giudice, F., Fasulo, S. Acta Histochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. UFT and its metabolites inhibit cancer-induced angiogenesis. Via a VEGF-related pathway. Basaki, Y., Aoyagi, K., Chikahisa, L., Miyadera, K., Hashimoto, A., Yonekura, K., Okabe, S., Shibata, J., Wierzba, K., Yamada, Y. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Conservation of surfactant protein A: evidence for a single origin for vertebrate pulmonary surfactant. Sullivan, L.C., Daniels, C.B., Phillips, I.D., Orgeig, S., Whitsett, J.A. J. Mol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Superfast contractions without superfast energetics: ATP usage by SR-Ca2+ pumps and crossbridges in toadfish swimbladder muscle. Rome, L.C., Klimov, A.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The fastest contracting muscles of nonmammalian vertebrates express only one isoform of the ryanodine receptor. O'Brien, J., Meissner, G., Block, B.A. Biophys. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
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