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Chemical Compound Review

AC1MHXGH     4-(4-aminophenyl)-2,3,5,6- tetramethyl-aniline

Synonyms: LS-32430, RB3139, Benzidine, tetramethyl-, Tetramethyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine, (1,1'-Biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine, tetramethyl-, ...
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Disease relevance of Tetramethylbenzidine

  • HbpA, expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli and purified by antibody affinity chromatography, has hemin binding activity as determined by lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with tetramethylbenzidine staining [1].
  • Subsequent querying with a streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate followed by color development using tetramethylbenzidine resulted in accurate Helicobacter species identification with no cross-hybridization to either the 16S rDNA or the cpn60 sequence of a closely related strain of Campylobacter jejuni [2].
  • A positive reaction with tetramethylbenzidine was also observed in the lesser superficial petrosal nerve, the greater superficial petrosal nerve, the vidian nerve, the greater deep petrosal nerve, the internal carotid ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion [3].
  • The ability to use the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) method for studying neuronal connections at the electron microscopic level is often difficult because the conditions of osmification and dehydration used in processing the tissue may result in significant loss and/or decreased electron density of the reaction product [4].
  • Of cases of colorectal cancer, TMB tests, the benzidine test, Fecatwin sensitive, Hemoccult, and Fecatwin could detect about 85%, 85%, 85%, 80%, and 45%, respectively [5].

High impact information on Tetramethylbenzidine


Biological context of Tetramethylbenzidine

  • A 101-kilodalton (kDa) protein responsible for this phenotype (Crb+) in S. flexneri was identified by a tetramethylbenzidine staining procedure which detects heme-protein complexes in polyacrylamide gels [11].
  • The test sample was incubated and the antigen-antibody reaction was monitored by the addition of a biotinylated monoclonal antibody (mAb 15) specific to the toxin, avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and tetramethylbenzidine substrate [12].
  • The second exons of HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 were co-amplified using biotinylated primers, amplicons were hybridized to a set of seven probes immobilized on a microtitre plate using a single hybridisation temperature, and detected colorimetrically by streptavidin-HRP conjugate and tetramethylbenzidine substrate [13].

Anatomical context of Tetramethylbenzidine


Associations of Tetramethylbenzidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Tetramethylbenzidine

  • The first step consisted of visualizing Metenkephalinergic terminals with DAB reaction product, and the second one involved detecting the antigens TH, beta-END, and NPY in their respective neurons with TMB reaction product [24].
  • The 37- and 19-kDa subunits are stained with tetramethylbenzidine for the cytochrome c hemes [25].
  • Tetramethylbenzidine histochemical analysis showed the presence of significant amounts of the lectin-conjugate in both the receptor epithelium and olfactory bulb until at least 2 weeks postintranasal application [26].
  • Horseradish peroxidase was injected into subdivisions of SI or SII and after post-injection survival periods of 12-72 hours the horseradish peroxidase in the tissue was reacted with the chromogens dihydrochlorobenzidine or tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide [27].
  • Quantitative determination of myeloperoxidase using tetramethylbenzidine as substrate [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tetramethylbenzidine


  1. Cloning and expression of two novel hemin binding protein genes from Treponema denticola. Xu, X., Holt, S.C., Kolodrubetz, D. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of pathogenic Helicobacter species by chaperonin-60 differentiation on plastic DNA arrays. Masson, L., Maynard, C., Brousseau, R., Goh, S.H., Hemmingsen, S.M., Hill, J.E., Paccagnella, A., Oda, R., Kimura, N. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Distribution and pathway of the cerebrovascular nerve fibers from the otic ganglion in the rat: anterograde tracing study. Shimizu, T. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Stabilization of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) reaction product at the electron microscopic level by ammonium molybdate. Marfurt, C.F., Turner, D.F., Adams, C.E. J. Neurosci. Methods (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Occult faecal blood loss determined by a 51Cr method and chemical tests in patients referred for colonoscopy. Dybdahl, J.H., Daae, L.N., Larsen, S., Myren, J. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Cytochrome c-553 is not required for photosynthetic activity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. Laudenbach, D.E., Herbert, S.K., McDowell, C., Fork, D.C., Grossman, A.R., Straus, N.A. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Auditory brain stem of the ferret: some effects of rearing with a unilateral ear plug on the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, and projections to the inferior colliculus. Moore, D.R., Hutchings, M.E., King, A.J., Kowalchuk, N.E. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Androgen regulates synaptic input to motoneurons of the adult rat spinal cord. Matsumoto, A., Micevych, P.E., Arnold, A.P. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Nonregenerative axonal growth within the mature mammalian brain: ultrastructural identification of sympathohippocampal sprouts. Crutcher, K.A., Marfurt, C.F. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholinergic and VIPergic innervation in cerebral arteries: a sequential double-labeling immunohistochemical study. Miao, F.J., Lee, T.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. A 101-kilodalton heme-binding protein associated with congo red binding and virulence of Shigella flexneri and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains. Stugard, C.E., Daskaleros, P.A., Payne, S.M. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. A new avidin-biotin optical immunoassay for the detection of beta-bungarotoxin and application in diagnosis of experimental snake envenomation. Dong, l.e. .V., Selvanayagam, Z.E., Gopalakrishnakone, P., Eng, K.H. J. Immunol. Methods (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Screening for the IDDM high-risk genotype. A rapid microtitre plate method using serum as source of DNA. Cinek, O., Wilkinson, E., Paltiel, L., Saugstad, O.D., Magnus, P., Rønningen, K.S. Tissue Antigens (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Brain stem terminations of the trigeminal and upper spinal ganglia innervation of the cerebrovascular system: WGA-HRP transganglionic study. Arbab, M.A., Delgado, T., Wiklund, L., Svendgaard, N.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Ultrastructural localization of light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina. Kayatz, P., Heimann, K., Schraermeyer, U. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Origin and distribution of cerebral vascular innervation from superior cervical, trigeminal and spinal ganglia investigated with retrograde and anterograde WGA-HRP tracing in the rat. Arbab, M.A., Wiklund, L., Svendgaard, N.A. Neuroscience (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. C-fiber (Remak) bundles contain both isolectin B4-binding and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive axons. Murinson, B.B., Hoffman, P.N., Banihashemi, M.R., Meyer, R.A., Griffin, J.W. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. The central projections of trigeminal primary afferent neurons in the cat as determined by the tranganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase. Marfurt, C.F. J. Comp. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Ultrastructure of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive, unmyelinated afferents to the cat carotid body: a case of volume transmission. Torrealba, F., Correa, R. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Ultrastructural relationships of spinal primary afferent fibres with neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the myenteric plexus of the cat oesophago-gastric junction. Mazzia, C., Clerc, N. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of new rapid commercial enzyme immunoassay for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in untreated stool specimens. Parisi, M.T., Tierno, P.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibitory synaptic input to identified rubrospinal neurons in Macaca fascicularis: an electron microscopic study using a combined immuno-GABA-gold technique and the retrograde transport of WGA-HRP. Ralston, D.D., Milroy, A.M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Detection of hemoprotein peroxidase activity on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Dutta, C., Henry, H.L. Anal. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic inputs of enkephalinergic nerve terminals to target neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus. Magoul, R., Dubourg, P., Kah, O., Tramu, G. Peptides (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. The cytochrome subunit structure in the photosynthetic reaction center of Chromatium minutissimum. Chamorovsky, S.K., Zakharova, N.I., Remennikov, S.M., Sabo, Y., Rubin, A.B. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Induction of cell division in olfactory basal epithelium following intranasal irrigation with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. Moon, Y.W., Baker, H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. The connections of cortical somatosensory areas I and II with separate nuclei in the ventroposterior thalamus in the raccoon. Herron, P. Neuroscience (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Quantitative determination of myeloperoxidase using tetramethylbenzidine as substrate. Andrews, P.C., Krinsky, N.I. Anal. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Spectrophotometry of occult blood in feces. Welch, C.L., Young, D.S. Clin. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. GABA-synthesizing neurons in the medulla: their relationship to serotonin-containing and spinally projecting neurons in the rat. Jones, B.E., Holmes, C.J., Rodriguez-Veiga, E., Mainville, L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. A comparison between wheat germ agglutinin-and choleragenoid-horseradish peroxidase as anterogradely transported markers in central branches of primary sensory neurones in the rat with some observations in the cat. Robertson, B., Grant, G. Neuroscience (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Somatotopic organization of vibrissae afferents in the trigeminal sensory nuclei of the rat studied by transganglionic transport of HRP. Arvidsson, J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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