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Chemical Compound Review

Endomorphin-2     (2S)-N-[(1S)-1-[[(1S)-1- aminocarbonyl-2...

Synonyms: Endomorphin 2, AC1NSJYN, CHEMBL333357, HMDB05774, CHEBI:297398, ...
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Disease relevance of Endomorphin 2


Psychiatry related information on Endomorphin 2


High impact information on Endomorphin 2

  • We have synthesized and pharmacologically characterized a chimeric peptide containing overlapping NH(2)- and COOH-terminal functional domains of the endogenous opioid endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and the tachykinin SP, respectively [8].
  • We recently reported the use of an exhaustively stereodiversified library based on endomorphin-2 (1) to discover mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands of type 2-4 [9].
  • After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the medial zone of hypothalamic tuberal region and the lateral hypothalamic area, respectively, endomorphin 1/Fluoro-Gold or endomorphin 2/Fluoro-Gold double-labeled neuronal cell bodies were found chiefly in the medial, commissural, lateral and gelatinous parts of the nucleus tractus solitarii [10].
  • These results suggest that the spinal antinociception induced by endomorphin-2 is mediated through the stimulation of a distinct subtype of mu(1)-opioid receptor that induces the release of the endogenous kappa-opioid peptide dynorphin A-(1-17) in the spinal cord [11].
  • Inhibition by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 of excitatory transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons [12].

Biological context of Endomorphin 2


Anatomical context of Endomorphin 2


Associations of Endomorphin 2 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Endomorphin 2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Endomorphin 2


  1. Endomorphins inhibit high-threshold Ca2+ channel currents in rodent NG108-15 cells overexpressing mu-opioid receptors. Higashida, H., Hoshi, N., Knijnik, R., Zadina, J.E., Kastin, A.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Endomorphin-2 inhibits GABAergic inputs to cardiac parasympathetic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Venkatesan, P., Wang, J., Evans, C., Irnaten, M., Mendelowitz, D. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Paradoxical hyperalgesia induced by mu-opioid receptor agonist endomorphin-2, but not endomorphin-1, microinjected into the centromedial amygdala of the rat. Terashvili, M., Wu, H.E., Schwasinger, E., Tseng, L.F. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Internalization and down-regulation of mu opioid receptors by endomorphins and morphine in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Horner, K.A., Zadina, J.E. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Binding of endomorphin-2 to mu-opioid receptors in experimental mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Fichna, J., do-Rego, J.C., Mirowski, M., Costentin, J., Janecka, A. J. Pept. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Involvement of mu(1)-opioid receptors and cholinergic neurotransmission in the endomorphins-induced impairment of passive avoidance learning in mice. Ukai, M., Lin, H.P. Behav. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of endomorphin-2 on arterial blood pressure and pain threshold in spontaneously hypertensive rats and modification of these effects by beta-funaltrexamine and nor-binaltorphimine. Makulska-Nowak, H.E., Gumułka, S.W., Lipkowski, A.W., Rawa, M.A. Life Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A substance P-opioid chimeric peptide as a unique nontolerance-forming analgesic. Foran, S.E., Carr, D.B., Lipkowski, A.W., Maszczynska, I., Marchand, J.E., Misicka, A., Beinborn, M., Kopin, A.S., Kream, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. 2,6-Dimethyltyrosine analogues of a stereodiversified ligand library: highly potent, selective, non-peptidic mu opioid receptor agonists. Harrison, B.A., Pasternak, G.W., Verdine, G.L. J. Med. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The reciprocal connections of endomorphin 1- and endomorphin 2-containing neurons between the hypothalamus and nucleus tractus solitarii in the rat. Hui, R., Chen, T., Li, Y.Q. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Possible involvement of dynorphin A-(1-17) release via micro1-opioid receptors in spinal antinociception by endomorphin-2. Mizoguchi, H., Watanabe, H., Hayashi, T., Sakurada, W., Sawai, T., Fujimura, T., Sakurada, T., Sakurada, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 of excitatory transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons. Fujita, T., Kumamoto, E. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Attenuation of aortic baroreflex responses by microinjections of endomorphin-2 into the rostral ventrolateral medullary pressor area of the rat. Kasamatsu, K., Sapru, H.N. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the [125I]endomorphin-2 binding sites in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. Fichna, J., Krajewska, U., Rozalski, M., Mirowski, M., Janecka, A. Peptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Acute antinociceptive tolerance and unidirectional cross-tolerance to endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 given intraventricularly in the rat. Hung, K.C., Wu, H.E., Mizoguchi, H., Tseng, L.F. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Structure-activity relationships of novel endomorphin-2 analogues with N-O turns induced by alpha-aminoxy acids. Wei, J., Shao, X., Gong, M., Zhu, B., Cui, Y., Gao, Y., Wang, R. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Novel endomorphin-2 analogs with mu-opioid receptor antagonist activity. Kruszynski, R., Fichna, J., do-Rego, J.C., Chung, N.N., Schiller, P.W., Kosson, P., Costentin, J., Janecka, A. J. Pept. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of synchronous or asynchronous electroacupuncture stimulation with low versus high frequency on spinal opioid release and tail flick nociception. Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, W., Cao, Y., Han, J.S. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Endomorphin-2 immunoreactivity in the cervical dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord at the electron microscopic level. Wang, Q.P., Zadina, J.E., Guan, J.L., Kastin, A.J., Funahashi, H., Shioda, S. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential involvement of mu(1)-opioid receptors in endomorphin- and beta-endorphin-induced G-protein activation in the mouse pons/medulla. Mizoguchi, H., Narita, M., Wu, H., Narita, M., Suzuki, T., Nagase, H., Tseng, L.F. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential mechanisms of antianalgesia induced by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 in the ventral periaqueductal gray of the rat. Terashvili, M., Wu, H.E., Leitermann, R.J., Sun, H.S., Clithero, A.D., Tseng, L.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Degradation of endomorphin-2 at the supraspinal level in mice is initiated by dipeptidyl peptidase IV: an in vitro and in vivo study. Sakurada, C., Sakurada, S., Hayashi, T., Katsuyama, S., Tan-No, K., Sakurada, T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional characterization of opioid receptor ligands by aequorin luminescence-based calcium assay. Fichna, J., Gach, K., Piestrzeniewicz, M., Burgeon, E., Poels, J., Broeck, J.V., Janecka, A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Postnatal development of ectopic sensory fibers containing endomorphin-2 in the white matter of the spinal cord of a transgenic mouse expressing nerve growth factor in oligodendrocytes. Dorfman, H.N., Bailey, A.L., St Louis, M., Zadina, J.E., Ribeiro-da-Silva, A. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Co-localization of endomorphin-2 and substance P in primary afferent nociceptors and effects of injury: a light and electron microscopic study in the rat. Sanderson Nydahl, K., Skinner, K., Julius, D., Basbaum, A.I. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 differentially interact with specific binding sites for substance P (SP) aminoterminal SP1-7 in the rat spinal cord. Botros, M., Hallberg, M., Johansson, T., Zhou, Q., Lindeberg, G., Frändberg, P.A., Tömböly, C., Tóth, G., Le Grevès, P., Nyberg, F. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Endomorphin-2 modulates productions of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10, and IL-12, and alters functions related to innate immune of macrophages. Azuma, Y., Ohura, K. Inflammation (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunohistochemical localization of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 in immune cells and spinal cord in a model of inflammatory pain. Mousa, S.A., Machelska, H., Schäfer, M., Stein, C. J. Neuroimmunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific activation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) by endomorphin 1 and endomorphin 2. Monory, K., Bourin, M.C., Spetea, M., Tömböly, C., Tóth, G., Matthes, H.W., Kieffer, B.L., Hanoune, J., Borsodi, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Modulation of endomorphin-2-induced analgesia by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. Shane, R., Wilk, S., Bodnar, R.J. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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