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Chemical Compound Review

monochlorine     chlorine

Synonyms: chlorine(.), AC1NSENA, Chlorine atom, CHEBI:29311, Cl(.), ...
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Disease relevance of chlorine

  • A statistically significant positive association was found between exposure of the mother to ClO2-treated water during pregnancy and prematurity of the newborn as assessed by the attending physician and by a greater weight loss after birth [1].
  • A decrease in genotoxicity, corresponding to the decrease in Cl2, was observed in the Ames Salmonella assays of the softwood bleaching plant effluents [2].
  • Workers with only ClO2/SO2 peak exposures had elevated HRs for attacks of wheeze (HR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.9 to 29.3) and chronic bronchitis (HR, 22.9; 95% CI, 4.5 to 118.2) but not for asthma [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chlorine dioxide inactivated HIV-1 in vitro [4].
  • The electrochemical inactivation of E. coli without chlorine production was demonstrated to occur in two distinct stages [5].

High impact information on chlorine

  • The alkyl and aryl groups at C5 of 1,2,4-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-imidazole 1 increased the transactivation, while chlorine atoms on the phenyl rings diminished this effect [6].
  • These results suggest that oxidation by HOCl may be the final step in VCR degradation catalyzed by MPO through its action on intracellular H2O2 and Cl [7].
  • Female SENCAR mice were treated with aqueous solutions of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl) by whole body exposure (except head) for a 10-min period for 4 days in the first experiment and for 1 day (except NH2Cl) in the second experiment [8].
  • The primary products resulting from ClO2 disinfection of waters are chlorites (ClO2-) and chlorates (ClO3-) [9].
  • The resistance of oocysts to the concentrations of chlorine and monochloramine used to disinfect potable water increases the risk of waterborne transmission via drinking water [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of chlorine


Biological context of chlorine


Anatomical context of chlorine

  • Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts appeared depressed in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups [16].
  • Combining the water and ion distributions, our data indicate the major monovalent ions Na, K and Cl to be in equilibrium between the stratum corneum and the dermis if the assumption is that all monovalent ions are in solution and that all the water of the tissue is available as solvent for the ions [18].
  • The increased Cl and Na concentrations may be an indication of a decreased activity of the ATPase-dependent Na/K-pump in the sarcolemma and/or of an increased sarcolemmal permeability for Na and Cl [19].
  • The role of gammadelta T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice [20].
  • The concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl) in blood plasma and erythrocytes of female factory workers were monitored as quantitative parameters [21].

Associations of chlorine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of chlorine

  • Multicomponent spectroscopic investigations of salivary antioxidant consumption by an oral rinse preparation containing the stable free radical species chlorine dioxide (ClO2.) [25].
  • RESULTS: Based on proportional hazards regression (controlling for gender, age, cigarette smoking, atopy, and peak irritant exposures that occurred before follow-up), workers who reported both ozone and ClO2/SO2 peak exposures had elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for all three outcomes [3].
  • METHODS: We exposed 22 subjects--8 with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), 6 with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), and 8 normals--to chlorine (Cl2) gas (1.0 ppm x 15 min.) by nasal CPAP mask [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chlorine

  • After treatment with diluted chlorine bleach, the covalently bound ACHT moieties were transformed into chloromelamines [27].
  • Participants performed spirometry and answered questions regarding ozone, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gassings [15].
  • A decrease in NBT activity was recorded in chlorine treated groups as compared to their respective temperature control groups [16].
  • Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings [16].
  • Recent epidemiological studies have reported associations between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various types of human cancer; in addition, exposure to chlorine (Cl-) in drinking water has been reported to suppress certain immune functions in laboratory animals [28].


  1. Health effects among newborns after prenatal exposure to ClO2-disinfected drinking water. Tuthill, R.W., Giusti, R.A., Moore, G.S., Calabrese, E.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Genotoxicity of kraft pulp spent liquors from different types of chlorination procedures. Nylund, L., Rosenberg, C., Jäppinen, P., Vainio, H. Mutat. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The incidence of respiratory symptoms and diseases among pulp mill workers with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases. Henneberger, P.K., Olin, A.C., Andersson, E., Hagberg, S., Torén, K. Chest (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by a medical waste disposal process using chlorine dioxide. Farr, R.W., Walton, C. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in the electrochemical disinfection process using a Pt anode. Jeong, J., Kim, J.Y., Cho, M., Choi, W., Yoon, J. Chemosphere (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure-Activity Relationship Study To Understand the Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Gene Activation of Aryl- and Alkyl-Substituted 1H-Imidazoles. Wiglenda, T., Gust, R. J. Med. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Further elucidation of mechanism of resistance to vincristine in myeloid cells: role of hypochlorous acid in degradation of vincristine by myeloperoxidase. Ozgen, U., Savaşan, S., Stout, M., Buck, S., Ravindranath, Y. Leukemia (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin following treatment with alternative drinking water disinfectants. Robinson, M., Bull, R.J., Schamer, M., Long, R.E. Environ. Health Perspect. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alternate drinking water disinfectants. Abdel-Rahman, M.S., Couri, D., Bull, R.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Critical processes affecting Cryptosporidium oocyst survival in the environment. King, B.J., Monis, P.T. Parasitology (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of rinsing and sanitizing procedures for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers. Alvarado-Casillas, S., Ibarra-Sánchez, S., Rodríguez-García, O., Martínez-Gonzáles, N., Castillo, A. J. Food Prot. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Recent applications of X-ray microanalysis in muscle pathology. Wróblewski, R., Edström, L. Scanning electron microscopy. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute and chronic toxicity of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorite (ClO2-) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Svecevicius, G., Syvokiene, J., Stasiŭnaite, P., Mickeniene, L. Environmental science and pollution research international. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Modulating effects of humic acids on genotoxicity induced by water disinfectants in Cyprinus carpio. Gustavino, B., Buschini, A., Monfrinotti, M., Rizzoni, M., Tancioni, L., Poli, P., Rossi, C. Mutat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Airflow limitation and changes in pulmonary function among bleachery workers. Mehta, A.J., Henneberger, P.K., Torén, K., Olin, A.C. Eur. Respir. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Persistent sub-lethal chlorine exposure augments temperature induced immunosuppression in Cyprinus carpio advanced fingerlings. Verma, A.K., Pal, A.K., Manush, S.M., Das, T., Dalvi, R.S., Chandrachoodan, P.P., Ravi, P.M., Apte, S.K. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. The impact of ferrous ion reduction of chlorite ion on drinking water process performance. Henderson, R., Carlson, K., Gregory, D. Water Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Water and ion distribution profiles in human skin. von Zglinicki, T., Lindberg, M., Roomans, G.M., Forslind, B. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Changes in elemental composition of human muscle fibres following surgery and immobilization. An X-ray microanalytical study. Wroblewski, R., Arvidsson, I., Eriksson, E., Jansson, E. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. The role of gammadelta T cells in airway epithelial injury and bronchial responsiveness after chlorine gas exposure in mice. Koohsari, H., Tamaoka, M., Campbell, H.R., Martin, J.G. Respir. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. The influence of low intensity 50 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on blood Na, K and Cl concentrations in humans. Nikin, B., Lazetic, B., Pekaric-Nadj, N., Koledin, D. Reviews on environmental health. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of ammonia nitrogen and dissolved organic matter fractions on the genotoxicity of wastewater effluent during chlorine disinfection. Wang, L.S., Hu, H.Y., Wang, C. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Constituents of the Egyptian Centaurea scoparia; Chlorinated Guaianolides of the Aerial Parts. Youssef, D., Frahm, A.W. Planta Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Estimation of gas-phase reaction rate constants of alkylnaphthalenes with chlorine, hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Long, X., Niu, J. Chemosphere (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Multicomponent spectroscopic investigations of salivary antioxidant consumption by an oral rinse preparation containing the stable free radical species chlorine dioxide (ClO2.). Lynch, E., Sheerin, A., Claxson, A.W., Atherton, M.D., Rhodes, C.J., Silwood, C.J., Naughton, D.P., Grootveld, M. Free Radic. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Cholinergic blockade does not alter the nasal congestive response to irritant provocation. Shusterman, D., Murphy, M.A., Walsh, P., Balmes, J.R. Rhinology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Biocidal efficacy, biofilm-controlling function, and controlled release effect of chloromelamine-based bioresponsive fibrous materials. Chen, Z., Luo, J., Sun, Y. Biomaterials (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of chlorinated drinking water in mice. French, A.S., Copeland, C.B., Andrews, D.L., Wiliams, W.C., Riddle, M.M., Luebke, R.W. Toxicology (1998) [Pubmed]
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