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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Rhinitis

  • Most cases (95%) of childhood asthma are associated with atopy, the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated familial syndrome of allergic asthma, eczema and rhinitis [1].
  • In this study we test the hypothesis that eosinophil infiltration during allergen-provoked rhinitis in hayfever sufferers may occur as a consequence of activation of a population of cells having a characteristic cytokine profile equivalent to the murine Th lymphocyte Th2 subset [2].
  • Modulation of gland AQP5 expression or function might provide a novel approach to treat hyperviscous gland secretions in cystic fibrosis and excessive fluid secretions in infectious or allergic bronchitis/rhinitis [3].
  • Asthma, rhinitis, and eosinophilia were exclusions, as was daily use of > 10 mg of prednisone (or 20 mg on alternate days) [4].
  • Chronic rhinitis afflicts many American adults; the exact number is unknown because of the difficulty in establishing an exact diagnosis and because of the likely presence of overlap syndromes, including perennial allergic rhinitis, perennial nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia, and so-called vasomotor rhinitis [5].

Psychiatry related information on Rhinitis


High impact information on Rhinitis

  • "Asthma," "rhinitis" and "atopy" reconsidered [7].
  • Asymptomatic thrush developed in four patients and rhinitis developed in ten patients as prednisone therapy was discontinued [8].
  • Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions [9].
  • FINDINGS: We found a significant association between a BstXI polymorphism in MCC and eczema (odds ratio 2.17 [95% CI 1.21-3.88], p = 0.009), but no association with atopic asthma, rhinitis, or non-atopic asthma [10].
  • Assessments of allergen-specific IgE, clinical rhinitis, and asthma were made in the donors prior to BMT and in the recipients with a mean follow-up of 15.5 years after BMT [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rhinitis

  • Rhinitis also was increased in severity by HMPA in conventional rats, but not in experimentally infected PF or axenic rats [12].
  • Allergic subjects had an immediate response to antigenic challenge with symptoms of rhinitis highly correlated with increments in the concentrations of histamine, prostaglandin D2, kinins and kininogens, leukotrienes, and toluene sulfonyl arginine methyl ester esterase activity in their nasal secretions [13].
  • All of the patients share a common history of chronic rhinitis and habitual use of large doses of nasal spray containing 9 alpha-fluoroprednisolone and vasoconstrictor agents [14].
  • Intranasal beclomethasone dipropionate significantly reduced global rhinitis symptom scores (p = 0.05) after 4 weeks of treatment [15].
  • RESULTS: Reductions of the Rhinitis Index Score (mean +/- SEM) were 4.20 +/- 0.21 and 4.60 +/- 0.21 for triamcinolone and fluticasone, respectively (p = 0.23) [16].

Biological context of Rhinitis


Anatomical context of Rhinitis

  • Production of RANTES by epithelium could contribute to the mechanism of selective cellular recruitment occurring in the airways during inflammation, thus playing a relevant role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and polyposis [22].
  • The present study was designed to investigate the expression of IL-13 gene in the epithelial compartment of the nasal mucosa of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) to house dust mite, comparing it with that in the nasal epithelial compartment of chronic infectious rhinitis (CIR) patients and normal volunteers (NV) [23].
  • Human allergen-induced rhinitis is associated with recruitment and activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes and eosinophils [24].
  • Leukocyte histamine release was demonstrated to TMA-HSA in one worker with high levels of IgE antibody specific for TMA-HSA who had severe symptoms of acute rhinitis and asthma [25].
  • In addition, skin test studies with histamine (2 micrograms) and morphine (5 micrograms) performed to assess cutaneous vascular and mast cell responsiveness in patients with BMF, normal volunteers and controls with rhinitis revealed no significant differences in cutaneous reactivity to these pharmacologic agents [26].

Gene context of Rhinitis

  • We hypothesize that an abnormal regulation of COX-2 will predispose patients with asthma to develop aspirin-intolerant asthma/rhinitis (AIAR) [27].
  • Co-expression of endothelin-1 and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in patients with chronic rhinitis [28].
  • RESULTS: Without the nasal provocation, only the expression of CD86 was increased in nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis compared with those with non-allergic rhinitis [29].
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the expression of CD80/CD86 molecules and their counter-receptors is induced in allergic patients following nasal provocation with allergen, suggesting a local amplification of allergen-specific immune responses in perennial rhinitis [29].
  • Thus, we sought to determine the role of IL-4 in the initiation of allergic rhinitis in vivo with this model [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rhinitis


  1. A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci underlying asthma. Daniels, S.E., Bhattacharrya, S., James, A., Leaves, N.I., Young, A., Hill, M.R., Faux, J.A., Ryan, G.F., le Söuef, P.N., Lathrop, G.M., Musk, A.W., Cookson, W.O. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Cytokine messenger RNA expression for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, and granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor in the nasal mucosa after local allergen provocation: relationship to tissue eosinophilia. Durham, S.R., Ying, S., Varney, V.A., Jacobson, M.R., Sudderick, R.M., Mackay, I.S., Kay, A.B., Hamid, Q.A. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Aquaporin-5 dependent fluid secretion in airway submucosal glands. Song, Y., Verkman, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Addition of anticholinergic solution prolongs bronchodilator effect of beta 2 agonists in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levin, D.C., Little, K.S., Laughlin, K.R., Galbraith, J.M., Gustman, P.M., Murphy, D., Kram, J.A., Hardie, G., Reuter, C., Ostransky, D., McFarland, K., Petty, T.L., Silvers, W., Rennard, S.I., Mueller, M., Repsher, L.H., Zuwallack, R.L., Vale, R. Am. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Chronic rhinitis in adults. Middleton, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Differences in nasal irritant sensitivity by age, gender, and allergic rhinitis status. Shusterman, D., Murphy, M.A., Balmes, J. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. "Asthma," "rhinitis" and "atopy" reconsidered. Lowell, F.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Beclomethasone in steroid-dependent asthma. Effective therapy and recovery of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function. Webb, D.R. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions. Raphael, G.D., Jeney, E.V., Baraniuk, J.N., Kim, I., Meredith, S.D., Kaliner, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Association between genetic variants of mast-cell chymase and eczema. Mao, X.Q., Shirakawa, T., Yoshikawa, T., Yoshikawa, K., Kawai, M., Sasaki, S., Enomoto, T., Hashimoto, T., Furuyama, J., Hopkin, J.M., Morimoto, K. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term acquisition of allergen-specific IgE and asthma following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from allergic donors. Hallstrand, T.S., Sprenger, J.D., Agosti, J.M., Longton, G.M., Witherspoon, R.P., Henderson, W.R. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhancement of natural and experimental respiratory mycoplasmosis in rats by hexamethylphosphoramide. Overcash, R.G., Lindsey, J.R., Cassel, G.H., Baker, H.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Mediator release during nasal provocation. A model to investigate the pathophysiology of rhinitis. Togias, A., Naclerio, R.M., Proud, D., Baumgarten, C., Peters, S., Creticos, P.S., Warner, J., Kagey-Sobotka, A., Adkinson, N.F., Norman, P.S. Am. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Mineralocorticoid hypertension due to a nasal spray containing 9 alpha-fluoroprednisolone. Mantero, F., Armanini, D., Opocher, G., Fallo, F., Sampieri, L., Cuspidi, B., Ambrosi, C., Faglia, G. Am. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with intranasal corticosteroids in patients with mild asthma: effect on lower airway responsiveness. Watson, W.T., Becker, A.B., Simons, F.E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparison of triamcinolone acetonide nasal aerosol spray and fluticasone propionate aqueous solution spray in the treatment of spring allergic rhinitis. Small, P., Houle, P.A., Day, J.H., Briscoe, M., Gold, M., Brodarec, I., Ham Pong, A., Mandl, M., Spénard, J., Phillips, R., Furlan, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Ipratropium bromide increases the ability of the nose to warm and humidify air. Assanasen, P., Baroody, F.M., Rouadi, P., Naureckas, E., Solway, J., Naclerio, R.M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Isotypic and antigenic restriction of the blocking antibody response to ryegrass pollen: correlation of rye group I antigen-specific IgG1 with clinical response. Moss, R.B., Hsu, Y.P., Kwasnicki, J.M., Sullivan, M.M., Reid, M.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for common genetic elements in allergic disease. Barnes, K.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Histamine bronchial challenge: effect on regional ventilation and aerosol deposition. Clague, H., Ahmad, D., Chamberlain, M.J., Morgan, W.K., Vinitski, S. Thorax (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Influence of intranasal steroids during the grass pollen season on bronchial responsiveness in children and young adults with asthma and hay fever. Thio, B.J., Slingerland, G.L., Fredriks, A.M., Nagelkerke, A.F., Scheeren, R.A., Neijens, H.J., Roord, J.J., Dankert-Roelse, J.E. Thorax (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the chemokine RANTES by a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Modulation by cytokines and glucocorticoids. Stellato, C., Beck, L.A., Gorgone, G.A., Proud, D., Schall, T.J., Ono, S.J., Lichtenstein, L.M., Schleimer, R.P. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Interleukin-13 expression in the nasal mucosa of perennial allergic rhinitis. Pawankar, R.U., Okuda, M., Hasegawa, S., Suzuki, K., Yssel, H., Okubo, K., Okumura, K., Ra, C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. RANTES in human allergen-induced rhinitis: cellular source and relation to tissue eosinophilia. Rajakulasingam, K., Hamid, Q., O'Brien, F., Shotman, E., Jose, P.J., Williams, T.J., Jacobson, M., Barkans, J., Durham, S.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Trimellitic anhydride-induced airway syndromes: clinical and immunologic studies. Zeiss, C.R., Patterson, R., Pruzansky, J.J., Miller, M.M., Rosenberg, M., Levitz, D. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Patients with bone marrow failure demonstrate decreased cutaneous reactivity to human C5a. Yancey, K.B., Bielory, L., Wright, R., Young, N., Frank, M.M., Lawley, T.J. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA is downexpressed in nasal polyps from aspirin-sensitive asthmatics. Picado, C., Fernandez-Morata, J.C., Juan, M., Roca-Ferrer, J., Fuentes, M., Xaubet, A., Mullol, J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Co-expression of endothelin-1 and endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in patients with chronic rhinitis. Furukawa, K., Saleh, D., Bayan, F., Emoto, N., Kaw, S., Yanagisawa, M., Giaid, A. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of costimulatory CD80/CD86-CD28/CD152 molecules in nasal mucosa of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Hattori, H., Okano, M., Yoshino, T., Akagi, T., Nakayama, E., Saito, C., Satoskar, A.R., Ogawa, T., Azuma, M., Nishizaki, K. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Interleukin-4-independent production of Th2 cytokines by nasal lymphocytes and nasal eosinophilia in murine allergic rhinitis. Okano, M., Satoskar, A.R., Abe, M., Harn, D.A., Okano, M., Nishizaki, K., Takeda, Y., Yoshino, T., Brombacher, F., Satoskar, A.A. Allergy (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. The association of allergen skin test reactivity and respiratory disease among whites in the US population. Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976 to 1980. Gergen, P.J., Turkeltaub, P.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Allergic rhinitis to ragweed pollen. II. Modulation of histamine-releasing factor production by specific immunotherapy. Brunet, C., Bédard, P.M., Lavoie, A., Jobin, M., Hébert, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Differences in mediator release between allergic rhinitis and asthma. Lam, S., al-Majed, S., Chan, H., Tse, K., LeRiche, J.C., Chan-Yeung, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Advances in upper airway diseases and allergen immunotherapy. Nelson, H.S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. ARIA update: I-Systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine for rhinitis and asthma. Passalacqua, G., Bousquet, P.J., Carlsen, K.H., Kemp, J., Lockey, R.F., Niggemann, B., Pawankar, R., Price, D., Bousquet, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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