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Chemical Compound Review

Thalomid     2-(2,6-dioxo-3- piperidyl)isoindole-1,3-dione

Synonyms: Asmadion, Bonbrain, Bonbrrin, Calmorex, Distaval, ...
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Disease relevance of thalidomide


High impact information on thalidomide


Chemical compound and disease context of thalidomide


Biological context of thalidomide


Anatomical context of thalidomide

  • They received a median of 3 prior regimens (range, 2-6 regimens), including autologous stem cell transplantation and Thal in 15 and 16 patients, respectively [3].
  • We found that CC-4047 effectively inhibits erythroid cell colony formation from CD34+ cells and increases the frequency of myeloid colonies [7].
  • Here we investigated the effect of CC-4047 on lineage commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells [7].
  • In conclusion, these data indicate that CC-4047 might directly influence lineage commitment of hematopoietic cells by increasing the propensity of stem and/or progenitor cells to undergo myeloid cell development and concomitantly inhibiting red cell development [7].
  • The MTD of CC-4047 orally was 2 mg/d. This is the first report demonstrating in vivo T-cell costimulation by this class of compound, supporting a potential role for CC-4047 as an immunostimulatory adjuvant treatment [13].

Associations of thalidomide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of thalidomide

  • Treatment with CC-4047 enhances the secretion of IL-2 protein and the expression of IL-2 mRNA in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner [16].
  • In the present study, we have investigated the effects of thalidomide, CC-5013 and CC-4047 on the expression of COX-2 by stimulated PBMC [17].
  • In T cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin, CC-4047 enhanced the DNA-binding activity of activated protein-1 (AP-1) but not NF-kappaB, Octomer-1 (OCT-1), or NFAT by 2-fold and 4-fold after an incubation time of 1 and 3 h, respectively [16].
  • Thalidomide stimulates the Th-1 response increasing IFN-gamma levels while CC-4047 increased IL-2 as well [18].
  • To better understand these clinical observations, we investigated and compared the effects of lenalidomide and a structurally related analogue, CC-4047, on the proliferation of two different human hematopoietic cell models: the Namalwa cancer cell line and normal CD34+ progenitor cells [4].
  • Pretreatment of cells with the antioxidant enzyme catalase and the intracellular hydroxyl scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) abrogated the thalidomide-induced p38 MAPK activation and histone H4 acetylation [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of thalidomide


  1. Thalidomide derivative CC-4047 inhibits osteoclast formation by down-regulation of PU.1. Anderson, G., Gries, M., Kurihara, N., Honjo, T., Anderson, J., Donnenberg, V., Donnenberg, A., Ghobrial, I., Mapara, M.Y., Stirling, D., Roodman, D., Lentzsch, S. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Enhancement of ligand-dependent activation of human natural killer T cells by lenalidomide: therapeutic implications. Chang, D.H., Liu, N., Klimek, V., Hassoun, H., Mazumder, A., Nimer, S.D., Jagannath, S., Dhodapkar, M.V. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunomodulatory drug CC-5013 overcomes drug resistance and is well tolerated in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. Richardson, P.G., Schlossman, R.L., Weller, E., Hideshima, T., Mitsiades, C., Davies, F., LeBlanc, R., Catley, L.P., Doss, D., Kelly, K., McKenney, M., Mechlowicz, J., Freeman, A., Deocampo, R., Rich, R., Ryoo, J.J., Chauhan, D., Balinski, K., Zeldis, J., Anderson, K.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Lenalidomide and CC-4047 inhibit the proliferation of malignant B cells while expanding normal CD34+ progenitor cells. Verhelle, D., Corral, L.G., Wong, K., Mueller, J.H., Moutouh-de Parseval, L., Jensen-Pergakes, K., Schafer, P.H., Chen, R., Glezer, E., Ferguson, G.D., Lopez-Girona, A., Muller, G.W., Brady, H.A., Chan, K.W. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. A novel anticancer effect of thalidomide: inhibition of intercellular adhesion molecule-1-mediated cell invasion and metastasis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB. Lin, Y.C., Shun, C.T., Wu, M.S., Chen, C.C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Thalidomide for treatment of multiple myeloma: 10 years later. Palumbo, A., Facon, T., Sonneveld, P., Bladè, J., Offidani, M., Gay, F., Moreau, P., Waage, A., Spencer, A., Ludwig, H., Boccadoro, M., Harousseau, J.L. Blood (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunomodulatory derivative of thalidomide (IMiD CC-4047) induces a shift in lineage commitment by suppressing erythropoiesis and promoting myelopoiesis. Koh, K.R., Janz, M., Mapara, M.Y., Lemke, B., Stirling, D., Dörken, B., Zenke, M., Lentzsch, S. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. NF-kappa B as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Hideshima, T., Chauhan, D., Richardson, P., Mitsiades, C., Mitsiades, N., Hayashi, T., Munshi, N., Dang, L., Castro, A., Palombella, V., Adams, J., Anderson, K.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Pro-inflammatory effects of cholera toxin: role of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Viana, C.F., Melo, D.H., Carneiro-Filho, B.A., Michelin, M.A., Brito, G.A., Cunha, F.Q., Lima, A.A., Ribeiro, R.A. Toxicon (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Thalidomide-induced organizing pneumonia. Feaver, A.A., McCune, D.E., Mysliwiec, A.G., Mysliwiec, V. South. Med. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhancement of cytokine production and AP-1 transcriptional activity in T cells by thalidomide-related immunomodulatory drugs. Schafer, P.H., Gandhi, A.K., Loveland, M.A., Chen, R.S., Man, H.W., Schnetkamp, P.P., Wolbring, G., Govinda, S., Corral, L.G., Payvandi, F., Muller, G.W., Stirling, D.I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Thalidomide dose proportionality assessment following single doses to healthy subjects. Teo, S.K., Scheffler, M.R., Kook, K.A., Tracewell, W.G., Colburn, W.A., Stirling, D.I., Thomas, S.D. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Phase I study of an immunomodulatory thalidomide analog, CC-4047, in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Schey, S.A., Fields, P., Bartlett, J.B., Clarke, I.A., Ashan, G., Knight, R.D., Streetly, M., Dalgleish, A.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Investigation of the in vitro biotransformation and simultaneous enantioselective separation of thalidomide and its neutral metabolites by capillary electrophoresis. Weinz, C., Blaschke, G. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Thalidomide resistance is based on the capacity of the glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense. Knobloch, J., Reimann, K., Klotz, L.O., Rüther, U. Mol. Pharm. (2008) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) increase the production of IL-2 from stimulated T cells by increasing PKC-theta activation and enhancing the DNA-binding activity of AP-1 but not NF-kappaB, OCT-1, or NF-AT. Payvandi, F., Wu, L., Naziruddin, S.D., Haley, M., Parton, A., Schafer, P.H., Chen, R.S., Muller, G.W., Hughes, C.C., Stirling, D.I. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunomodulatory drugs inhibit expression of cyclooxygenase-2 from TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and LPS-stimulated human PBMC in a partially IL-10-dependent manner. Payvandi, F., Wu, L., Haley, M., Schafer, P.H., Zhang, L.H., Chen, R.S., Muller, G.W., Stirling, D.I. Cell. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Properties of thalidomide and its analogues: implications for anticancer therapy. Teo, S.K. The AAPS journal [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Thalidomide induces gamma-globin gene expression through increased reactive oxygen species-mediated p38 MAPK signaling and histone H4 acetylation in adult erythropoiesis. Aerbajinai, W., Zhu, J., Gao, Z., Chin, K., Rodgers, G.P. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Protective antitumor immunity induced by a costimulatory thalidomide analog in conjunction with whole tumor cell vaccination is mediated by increased Th1-type immunity. Dredge, K., Marriott, J.B., Todryk, S.M., Muller, G.W., Chen, R., Stirling, D.I., Dalgleish, A.G. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Thalidomide as replacement for steroids in immunosuppression after lung transplantation. Uthoff, K., Zehr, K.J., Gaudin, P.B., Kumar, P., Cho, P.W., Vogelsang, G., Hruban, R.H., Baumgartner, W.A., Stuart, R.S. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Thalidomide analogs as emerging anti-cancer drugs. Dredge, K., Dalgleish, A.G., Marriott, J.B. Anticancer Drugs (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma. Zangari, M., Elice, F., Tricot, G. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. (2005) [Pubmed]
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