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Chemical Compound Review

Etiracetam     2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1- yl)butanamide

Synonyms: Etiracetamum, UCB-L059, ucb-L060, SureCN373194, UCB-6474, ...
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Disease relevance of Keppra


Psychiatry related information on Keppra


High impact information on Keppra


Chemical compound and disease context of Keppra


Biological context of Keppra


Anatomical context of Keppra


Associations of Keppra with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Keppra

  • It is thus concluded that levetiracetam is unlikely to produce pharmacokinetic interactions through inhibition of CYPs, UGTs, and epoxide hydrolase [29].
  • In order to better understand the potential role of NPY in epileptogenesis, the present studies investigated the development of amygdala kindling, post-kindling seizure thresholds, and anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine and levetiracetam in 129S6/SvEv NPY(+/+) and NPY(-/-) mice [30].
  • Levetiracetam prevents changes in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide Y mRNA and of Y1- and Y5-like receptors in the hippocampus of rats undergoing amygdala kindling: implications for antiepileptogenic and mood-stabilizing properties [31].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if levetiracetam, a second-generation antiepileptic drug, may be useful for the treatment of spasticity in MS [32].
  • RESULTS: In children, the half-lives of levetiracetam and its metabolite ucb L057 were 6.0 +/- 1.1 and 8.1 +/-2.7 hours, respectively [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Keppra


  1. Suppression of post-hypoxic and post-encephalitic myoclonus with levetiracetam. Krauss, G.L., Bergin, A., Kramer, R.E., Cho, Y.W., Reich, S.G. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in patients with moderate to severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C): characterization by dynamic liver function tests. Brockmöller, J., Thomsen, T., Wittstock, M., Coupez, R., Lochs, H., Roots, I. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Improvement of a patient with stuttering on levetiracetam. Paola Canevini, M., Chifari, R., Piazzini, A. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Levetiracetam may be more effective for late-onset partial epilepsy. Bazil, C.W., Rose, A., Resor, S., Yapicular, B., Hirsch, L.J. Arch. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Preliminary observations on the effectiveness of levetiracetam in the open adjunctive treatment of refractory bipolar disorder. Post, R.M., Altshuler, L.L., Frye, M.A., Suppes, T., McElroy, S.L., Keck, P.E., Leverich, G.S., Kupka, R., Nolen, W.A., Luckenbaugh, D.A., Walden, J., Grunze, H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. An open-label study of levetiracetam for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Simon, N.M., Worthington, J.J., Doyle, A.C., Hoge, E.A., Kinrys, G., Fischmann, D., Link, N., Pollack, M.H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Levetiracetam for treatment-refractory posttraumatic stress disorder. Kinrys, G., Wygant, L.E., Pardo, T.B., Melo, M. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for patients with panic disorder: results of an open-label, fixed-flexible dose study. Papp, L.A. The Journal of clinical psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Levetiracetam psychosis in children with epilepsy. Kossoff, E.H., Bergey, G.K., Freeman, J.M., Vining, E.P. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is the binding site for the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Lynch, B.A., Lambeng, N., Nocka, K., Kensel-Hammes, P., Bajjalieh, S.M., Matagne, A., Fuks, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term continuation of levetiracetam in patients with refractory epilepsy. Krakow, K., Walker, M., Otoul, C., Sander, J.W. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Pharmacokinetic profile of levetiracetam: toward ideal characteristics. Patsalos, P.N. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Treating seizures in patients with brain tumors: Drug interactions between antiepileptic and chemotherapeutic agents. Vecht, C.J., Wagner, G.L., Wilms, E.B. Semin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Levetiracetam in focal epilepsy and hepatic porphyria: a case report. Paul, F., Meencke, H.J. Epilepsia (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of the novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam on spontaneous recurrent seizures in the rat pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Glien, M., Brandt, C., Potschka, H., Löscher, W. Epilepsia (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Levetiracetam in tardive dyskinesia: an open label study. Konitsiotis, S., Pappa, S., Mantas, C., Mavreas, V. Mov. Disord. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Antinociceptive efficacy of lacosamide in a rat model for painful diabetic neuropathy. Beyreuther, B., Callizot, N., Stöhr, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Clinical pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam. Patsalos, P.N. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Levetiracetam. A review of its adjunctive use in the management of partial onset seizures. Dooley, M., Plosker, G.L. Drugs (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. New antiepileptic drugs and non-pharmacological treatments. Ben-Menachem, E. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. A microdialysis study of the novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam: extracellular pharmacokinetics and effect on taurine in rat brain. Tong, X., Patsalos, P.N. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Antiepileptogenic effects of the novel anticonvulsant levetiracetam (ucb L059) in the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Löscher, W., Hönack, D., Rundfeldt, C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Levetiracetam concentrations in serum and in breast milk at birth and during lactation. Johannessen, S.I., Helde, G., Brodtkorb, E. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical pharmacokinetics of new-generation antiepileptic drugs at the extremes of age. Perucca, E. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. 2005 AES Annual Course: Evidence Used to Treat Women with Epilepsy. Pennell, P.B. Epilepsia (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Levetiracetam opposes the action of GABAA antagonists in hypothalamic neurones. Poulain, P., Margineanu, D.G. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Levetiracetam does not alter the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive in healthy women. Ragueneau-Majlessi, I., Levy, R.H., Janik, F. Epilepsia (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Anticonvulsant efficacy of gabapentin and levetiracetam in phenytoin-resistant kindled rats. Löscher, W., Reissmüller, E., Ebert, U. Epilepsy Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. In vitro evaluation of potential drug interactions with levetiracetam, a new antiepileptic agent. Nicolas, J.M., Collart, P., Gerin, B., Mather, G., Trager, W., Levy, R., Roba, J. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Seizure susceptibility of neuropeptide-Y null mutant mice in amygdala kindling and chemical-induced seizure models. Shannon, H.E., Yang, L. Epilepsy Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Levetiracetam prevents changes in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide Y mRNA and of Y1- and Y5-like receptors in the hippocampus of rats undergoing amygdala kindling: implications for antiepileptogenic and mood-stabilizing properties. Husum, H., Bolwig, T.G., Sánchez, C., Mathé, A.A., Hansen, S.L. Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Levetiracetam for phasic spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Hawker, K., Frohman, E., Racke, M. Arch. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Pharmacokinetic study of levetiracetam in children. Pellock, J.M., Glauser, T.A., Bebin, E.M., Fountain, N.B., Ritter, F.J., Coupez, R.M., Shields, W.D. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography applied for separation of levetiracetam from other antiepileptic drugs in polypharmacy. Ivanova, M., Piunti, A., Marziali, E., Komarova, N., Raggi, M.A., Kenndler, E. Electrophoresis (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: experience in 12 cases. Aeby, A., Poznanski, N., Verheulpen, D., Wetzburger, C., Van Bogaert, P. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Efficacy of levetiracetam: a review of three pivotal clinical trials. Privitera, M. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Fast and sustained efficacy of levetiracetam during titration and the first 3 months of treatment in refractory epilepsy. French, J., di Nicola, S., Arrigo, C. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
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