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Chemical Compound Review

Gal-galnac     N-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-4,5,6- trihydroxy-1-oxo-3...

Synonyms: FT-0660993, AC1L22N1, T-Crypt antigen, Gal(beta-3)galnac, Galbeta(1-3)galnac, ...
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Disease relevance of Erythrocyte T antigen

  • Immunological studies from this population have shown that protection from amebiasis is associated with mucosal anti-E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin antibodies, suggesting that a vaccine is an achievable goal [1].
  • E. coli adhesins showed no blood group specificity, excepting 1 cancer isolate (HM44) with specificity for the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, but they could be blocked by soluble plantain fiber [2].
  • Association of exposed Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) and acute renal failure in septic patients [3].
  • For detection of a subpopulation of patients with Grade II carcinomas who were at high risk for development of subsequent invasion, combinations of markers, especially hyperdiploidy and abnormal expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, were significantly more effective than any single marker system [4].
  • To check the usefulness of this marker and technology in identifying cancers and precancers of other organs, we have assessed the differential expression of Gal-GalNAc in various adenocarcinomas and their corresponding normal tissues [5].

High impact information on Erythrocyte T antigen


Chemical compound and disease context of Erythrocyte T antigen


Biological context of Erythrocyte T antigen

  • The tumor-associated carbohydrate Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) and beta-galactoside binding lectins (galectins) have been implicated in tumor cell adhesion and tissue invasion [14].
  • Imparting exquisite specificity to peanut agglutinin for the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen by redesign of its combining site [15].
  • To study transcriptional regulation in the lower branching eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, we have identified two sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that recognize the upstream regulatory element URE4, an enhancer that regulates expression of the Gal/GalNAc lectin heavy subunit gene hgl5 [16].
  • These findings suggest that the 35 kDa subunit may have a specific function in the pathogenic pathway and provides a new insight into the role of this component of the Gal/GalNac lectin complex in amoebic virulence [17].
  • These findings indicate that endocytosis of HAsTf-3 is mediated by the Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin and not by transferrin receptors [18].

Anatomical context of Erythrocyte T antigen


Associations of Erythrocyte T antigen with other chemical compounds

  • A newly isolated lectin, Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin (also called amaranthin or ACA), which binds to the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen) and its sialylated variants, was used as a histochemical probe for proliferating cells in sections of human colonic tissues [22].
  • The monosaccharides present after hydrolysis were those typically found in animal glycoproteins (Fuc, Man, Gal, GalNAc, and GlcNAc) [23].
  • In vitro studies of E. histolytica-Jurkat T-cell interactions demonstrated that apoptosis required contact via the amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin, but was unaffected by 75% inhibition of the amoebic cysteine proteinases [24].
  • The binding affinity of synthetic bi- and triantennary galactose ligands (Kichler, A. and Schuber, F. (1995) Glycoconj. Chem., 12, 275 281) has been determined for the Gal/GalNAc receptors of rat hepatocytes and macrophages [25].
  • Fucosylated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in alpha-anomeric configuration in human gastric surface epithelia: an allogeneic carbohydrate antigen possibly controlled by the Se gene [26].

Gene context of Erythrocyte T antigen

  • Therefore, we tried to evaluate the role of different glycosylated and non-glycoslyated MUC1 epitopes as well as other mucin-associated peptides (MUC2) and carbohydrates (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, sialyl-Lewisa, sialyl-Lewisx) as predictors of the clinical course and prognosis in mammary carcinomas [27].
  • Activation of MAPK kinase pathway by Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin of E. histolytica: gateway to host response [28].
  • Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels [29].
  • Myosin II and the Gal-GalNAc lectin play a crucial role in tissue invasion by Entamoeba histolytica [30].
  • Furthermore, most of the hybrid-type sugar chains of CD36 with the Gal/GalNAc beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->2 outer chain on their Man alpha 1-->3 arm contained an unusual Man alpha 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3 group on their Man alpha 1-->6 arm [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Erythrocyte T antigen


  1. Opportunities and obstacles in developing a vaccine for Entamoeba histolytica. Miller-Sims, V.C., Petri, W.A. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Enhanced Escherichia coli adherence and invasion in Crohn's disease and colon cancer. Martin, H.M., Campbell, B.J., Hart, C.A., Mpofu, C., Nayar, M., Singh, R., Englyst, H., Williams, H.F., Rhodes, J.M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Association of exposed Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen) and acute renal failure in septic patients. Lenz, G., Goes, U., Baron, D., Junger, H., Heller, W., Sugg, U., Lissner, R. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Prognosis in carcinoma of the urinary bladder based upon tissue blood group abh and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen status and karyotype of the initial tumor. Summers, J.L., Coon, J.S., Ward, R.M., Falor, W.H., Miller, A.W., Weinstein, R.S. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Common expression of the tumor marker D-galactose-beta-[1-->3]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by different adenocarcinomas: evidence of field effect phenomenon. Shamsuddin, A.M., Tyner, G.T., Yang, G.Y. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A bacterium lipopolysaccharide that elicits Guillain-Barré syndrome has a GM1 ganglioside-like structure. Yuki, N., Taki, T., Inagaki, F., Kasama, T., Takahashi, M., Saito, K., Handa, S., Miyatake, T. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Persistent repression of a functional allele can be responsible for galactosyltransferase deficiency in Tn syndrome. Thurnher, M., Rusconi, S., Berger, E.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica. Chadee, K., Petri, W.A., Innes, D.J., Ravdin, J.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Developing Dictyostelium cells contain the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase in a secretory granule. Lenhard, J.M., Siegel, A., Free, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Glycosylation-dependent interaction of Jacalin with CD45 induces T lymphocyte activation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion. Baba, M., Yong Ma, B., Nonaka, M., Matsuishi, Y., Hirano, M., Nakamura, N., Kawasaki, N., Kawasaki, N., Kawasaki, T. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative study of glycoconjugates of the rat prostatic lobes by lectin histochemistry. Chan, F.L., Ho, S.M. Prostate (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen expression in gastric carcinomas is associated with MUC1 mucin VNTR polymorphism. Santos-Silva, F., Fonseca, A., Caffrey, T., Carvalho, F., Mesquita, P., Reis, C., Almeida, R., David, L., Hollingsworth, M.A. Glycobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunohistochemical differentiation of extra-ocular sebaceous carcinoma from other skin cancers. Ansai, S., Mitsuhashi, Y., Kondo, S., Manabe, M. J. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-specific peptide P-30 on beta-galactoside-mediated homotypic aggregation and adhesion to the endothelium of MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells. Glinsky, V.V., Huflejt, M.E., Glinsky, G.V., Deutscher, S.L., Quinn, T.P. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Imparting exquisite specificity to peanut agglutinin for the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen by redesign of its combining site. Sharma, V., Vijayan, M., Surolia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of two Entamoeba histolytica sequence-specific URE4 enhancer-binding proteins with homology to the RNA-binding motif RRM. Schaenman, J.M., Gilchrist, C.A., Mann, B.J., Petri, W.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Antisense inhibition of expression of the light subunit (35 kDa) of the Gal/GalNac lectin complex inhibits Entamoeba histolytica virulence. Ankri, S., Padilla-Vaca, F., Stolarsky, T., Koole, L., Katz, U., Mirelman, D. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Diacytosis of human asialotransferrin type 3 in the rat liver is due to the sequential engagement of two receptors. Regoeczi, E., Koj, A. Exp. Cell Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Rapid release of galactose-terminated ligands after endocytosis by hepatic parenchymal cells: evidence for a role of carbohydrate structure in the release of internalized ligand from receptor. Townsend, R.R., Wall, D.A., Hubbard, A.L., Lee, Y.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Specificity of reagents directed to the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and their capacity to bind to the surface of human carcinoma cell lines. Wolf, M.F., Koerner, U., Schumacher, K. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Leukocyte migration inhibition responses to MCF-7, murine mammary tumor virus, and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in a series of cancer patients. Bernhard, M.I., Wanebo, H.J., Helm, J., Pace, R.C., Kaiser, D.L. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Use of the lectin from Amaranthus caudatus as a histochemical probe of proliferating colonic epithelial cells. Boland, C.R., Chen, Y.F., Rinderle, S.J., Resau, J.H., Luk, G.D., Lynch, H.T., Goldstein, I.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Isolation, physicochemical properties, and macromolecular composition of zona pellucida from porcine oocytes. Dunbar, B.S., Wardrip, N.J., Hedrick, J.L. Biochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Caspase 3-dependent killing of host cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Huston, C.D., Houpt, E.R., Mann, B.J., Hahn, C.S., Petri, W.A. Cell. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparative affinity of synthetic multi-antennary galactosyl derivatives for the Gal/GalNAc receptor of rat hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Kichler, A., Schuber, F. Journal of drug targeting. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Fucosylated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen in alpha-anomeric configuration in human gastric surface epithelia: an allogeneic carbohydrate antigen possibly controlled by the Se gene. Okada, Y., Sotozono, M., Sakai, N., Yonei, T., Nakanishi, S., Tsuji, T. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of MUC1, MUC2 and oligosaccharide epitopes in breast cancer: prognostic significance of a sialylated MUC1 epitope. Baldus, S.E., Wienand, J.R., Werner, J.P., Landsberg, S., Drebber, U., Hanisch, F.G., Dienes, H.P. Int. J. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Activation of MAPK kinase pathway by Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin of E. histolytica: gateway to host response. Rawal, S., Majumdar, S., Vohra, H. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves. Sheikh, K.A., Deerinck, T.J., Ellisman, M.H., Griffin, J.W. Brain (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Myosin II and the Gal-GalNAc lectin play a crucial role in tissue invasion by Entamoeba histolytica. Coudrier, E., Amblard, F., Zimmer, C., Roux, P., Olivo-Marin, J.C., Rigothier, M.C., Guillén, N. Cell. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Structural study of the sugar chains of CD36 purified from bovine mammary epithelial cells: occurrence of novel hybrid-type sugar chains containing the Neu5Ac alpha 2-->6GalNAc beta 1-->4GlcNAc and the Man alpha 1-->2Man alpha 1-->3Man alpha 1-->6Man groups. Nakata, N., Furukawa, K., Greenwalt, D.E., Sato, T., Kobata, A. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. CD69+ and HLA-DR+ activation antigens on peripheral blood lymphocyte populations in metastatic breast and ovarian cancer patients: correlations with survival following active specific immunotherapy. Yacyshyn, M.B., Poppema, S., Berg, A., MacLean, G.D., Reddish, M.A., Meikle, A., Longenecker, B.M. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Topography of the combining region of a Thomsen-Friedenreich-antigen-specific lectin jacalin (Artocarpus integrifolia agglutinin). A thermodynamic and circular-dichroism spectroscopic study. Mahanta, S.K., Sastry, M.V., Surolia, A. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of protein-carbohydrate interaction at the lower size limit of the protein part (15-mer peptide) by NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and molecular modeling. Siebert, H.C., Lü, S.Y., Frank, M., Kramer, J., Wechselberger, R., Joosten, J., André, S., Rittenhouse-Olson, K., Roy, R., von der Lieth, C.W., Kaptein, R., Vliegenthart, J.F., Heck, A.J., Gabius, H.J. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc-R alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase activity of human colon cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice and of xenograft-derived cell lines. Dall'Olio, F., Malagolini, N., Serafini-Cessi, F. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Transfusion of infants with activation of erythrocyte T antigen. Williams, R.A., Brown, E.F., Hurst, D., Franklin, L.C. J. Pediatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
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