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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, env

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Disease relevance of Genes, env

  • Among these sequences are complete, potentially infectious proviruses, proviral DNA that is expressed only in the form of viral antigens, retroviral segments that may contribute portions of envelope (env) genes during the generation of recombinant polytropic viruses, and many subgenomic viral DNA segments that may not be expressed at all [1].
  • Here we show that HSV-1 Us11 protein is able to bind Rex- and Rev-responsive elements and to transactivate envelope retroviral glycoprotein expression [2].
  • The envelope (env) gene from Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) was inserted into the genome of a vaccinia virus expression vector [3].
  • Previously published studies using subgenomic env constructs in nonlymphoid cell types concluded that Rev was necessary for cytoplasmic accumulation of high levels of unspliced env RNA and that, by analogy, Rev must be necessary for the cytoplasmic accumulation of all HIV-1 RNAs that contain the Rev-responsive element (RRE) [4].
  • Its three open reading frames encode predicted products resembling the products of the gag, pol and env genes of retroviruses [5].

High impact information on Genes, env

  • In addition to the viral gag, pol, and env genes is an ORF overlapping both gag and pol and that encodes the viral protease [6].
  • The pol and env genes overlap [7].
  • A highly conserved cis-acting sequence termed the Rev-responsive element (RRE) has been identified in the envelope gene (env) of the viral transcript that seems to control mRNA processing in a Rev-dependent manner [8].
  • The antigenic activity was encoded within the MMTV env gene and was defined by the octapeptide ANYDFICV (AFV8) [9].
  • When portions of murine viral envelope (env) genes were attached 3' of ras, 10(2)-10(5) focus-forming units of HaSV were generated, depending on the extent of homology with env of MoV [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, env


Biological context of Genes, env


Anatomical context of Genes, env


Associations of Genes, env with chemical compounds

  • Mutations in the region coding for the N terminus of gp41 were found to disrupt glycoprotein expression because of deleterious effects on the Rev-responsive element (RRE) [22].
  • In CV-1 cells, palmitate was added to env gene products containing single mutations but was absent in the double-mutant Env [23].
  • We show that neither a deletion of the cleavage sequence nor a glutamic acid for lysine substitution altered intracellular transport or surface expression of the env gene products [24].

Gene context of Genes, env

  • To track the hallmarks of natural selection acting on the ERVWE1 env gene, the pattern of substitutions and indels was analyzed within all human HERV-W elements and along the ERVWE1 orthologous loci in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon [25].
  • Previous studies suggested that Rmcf resistance is mediated by expression of an interfering MCF MLV envelope (Env) gene [26].
  • The restriction in replication between these two CD4-positive cell types is largely at the level of viral entry and is regulated by the viral envelope (env) gene [27].
  • Previous studies have suggested that the flanking cellular sequences are also important for Fv-4 env gene expression [28].
  • Expression of the Gag protein was dramatically increased when Rev-C was added in trans, indicating that this fragment contained the cis-acting CAEV Rev Responsive Element [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, env

  • Sequence analysis of the regions flanking src revealed that the env gene was completely deleted in RSV-29 and that the sequence across the deletion was exactly the same as the Bryan high-titer strain of RSV [30].
  • We developed an efficient system of site-directed mutagenesis for the envelope (env) gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) [31].
  • PCR amplification was followed by cloning and then sequencing the HIV-1 insert: V1-V5 regions of the envelope (env) gene [32].
  • In the experiment, 67 healthy, female Chinese Experimental Mini-Pigs (CEMPs) aged at 3-6 months were selected from the Animal Husbandry Station of China Agricultural University, the copy number of PERV and types of envelope protein gene (env) were then investigated by means of PCR analysis and Southern blotting [33].


  1. mRNA transcripts related to full-length endogenous retroviral DNA in human cells. Rabson, A.B., Steele, P.E., Garon, C.F., Martin, M.A. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Post-transcriptional transactivation of human retroviral envelope glycoprotein expression by herpes simplex virus Us11 protein. Diaz, J.J., Dodon, M.D., Schaerer-Uthurralt, N., Simonin, D., Kindbeiter, K., Gazzolo, L., Madjar, J.J. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. T-lymphocyte priming and protection against Friend leukemia by vaccinia-retrovirus env gene recombinant. Earl, P.L., Moss, B., Morrison, R.P., Wehrly, K., Nishio, J., Chesebro, B. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Rev is necessary for translation but not cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 vif, vpr, and env/vpu 2 RNAs. Arrigo, S.J., Chen, I.S. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Invertebrate retroviruses: ZAM a new candidate in D.melanogaster. Leblanc, P., Desset, S., Dastugue, B., Vaury, C. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: an immunosuppressive D-type retrovirus. Sonigo, P., Barker, C., Hunter, E., Wain-Hobson, S. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of Rous sarcoma virus. Schwartz, D.E., Tizard, R., Gilbert, W. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Specific binding of HIV-1 recombinant Rev protein to the Rev-responsive element in vitro. Daly, T.J., Cook, K.S., Gray, G.S., Maione, T.E., Rusche, J.R. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. The mouse mammary tumor virus env gene is the source of a CD8+ T-cell-stimulating peptide presented by a major histocompatibility complex class I molecule in a murine thymoma. Malarkannan, S., Serwold, T., Nguyen, V., Sherman, L.A., Shastri, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence that retroviral transduction is mediated by DNA not by RNA. Goodrich, D.W., Duesberg, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Carbohydrate structure of glycoprotein 52 encoded by the polycythemia-inducing strain of Friend spleen focus-forming virus. Strube, K.H., Schott, H.H., Geyer, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of Rous sarcoma virus replication by 2-deoxyglucose and tunicamycin: identification of an unglycosylated env gene product. Stohrer, R., Hunter, E. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Independent regulation of endogenous and exogenous avian RNA tumor virus genes. Hayward, W.S., Hanafusa, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Retroviral recombination during reverse transcription. Goodrich, D.W., Duesberg, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection of mammary tumor virus env gene-like sequences in human breast cancer. Wang, Y., Holland, J.F., Bleiweiss, I.J., Melana, S., Liu, X., Pelisson, I., Cantarella, A., Stellrecht, K., Mani, S., Pogo, B.G. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficiency and selectivity of RNA packaging by Rous sarcoma virus Gag deletion mutants. Sakalian, M., Wills, J.W., Vogt, V.M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Complex determinants of macrophage tropism in env of simian immunodeficiency virus. Mori, K., Ringler, D.J., Kodama, T., Desrosiers, R.C. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Coexpression of the simian immunodeficiency virus Env and Rev proteins by a recombinant human adenovirus host range mutant. Cheng, S.M., Lee, S.G., Ronchetti-Blume, M., Virk, K.P., Mizutani, S., Eichberg, J.W., Davis, A., Hung, P.P., Hirsch, V.M., Chanock, R.M. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Efficient expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in epithelial cells by using Rev and the Rev-responsive element of human immunodeficiency virus or the cis-acting transactivation element of simian retrovirus type 1. Tan, W., Felber, B.K., Zolotukhin, A.S., Pavlakis, G.N., Schwartz, S. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Impact of codon usage modification on T cell immunogenicity and longevity of HIV-1 gag-specific DNA vaccines. Bojak, A., Wild, J., Deml, L., Wagner, R. Intervirology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell-mediated immunity to chemically xenogenized tumors--VI. The effect of cell treatment with retroviral env antisense oligonucleotides. Grohmann, U., Binaglia, L., Puccetti, P., Fioretti, M.C. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Requirement of N-terminal amino acid residues of gp41 for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated cell fusion. Schaal, H., Klein, M., Gehrmann, P., Adams, O., Scheid, A. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Palmitoylation of the Rous sarcoma virus transmembrane glycoprotein is required for protein stability and virus infectivity. Ochsenbauer-Jambor, C., Miller, D.C., Roberts, C.R., Rhee, S.S., Hunter, E. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutations within the proteolytic cleavage site of the Rous sarcoma virus glycoprotein that block processing to gp85 and gp37. Perez, L.G., Hunter, E. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence of selection on the domesticated ERVWE1 env retroviral element involved in placentation. Bonnaud, B., Bouton, O., Oriol, G., Cheynet, V., Duret, L., Mallet, F. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of a polytropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequence associated with the virus resistance gene Rmcf of DBA/2 mice. Jung, Y.T., Lyu, M.S., Buckler-White, A., Kozak, C.A. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. HIV-1 envelope determinants for cell tropism and chemokine receptor use. Hoffman, T.L., Doms, R.W. Mol. Membr. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Scheme for the generation of a truncated endogenous murine leukaemia virus, the Fv-4 resistance gene. Inaguma, Y., Yoshida, T., Ikeda, H. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Rev protein and its cis-acting Rev-responsive element. Saltarelli, M.J., Schoborg, R., Pavlakis, G.N., Clements, J.E. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Partial nucleotide sequence of Rous sarcoma virus-29 provides evidence that the original Rous sarcoma virus was replication defective. Dutta, A., Wang, L.H., Hanafusa, T., Hanafusa, H. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. An efficient system for site-directed mutagenesis to make various mutants of the env gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Shimizu, N., Hoshino, H. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. HIV-1 heterogeneity and cytokines. Neuropathogenesis. Shapshak, P., Nagano, I., Xin, K., Bradley, W., McCoy, C.B., Sun, N.C., Stewart, R.V., Yoshioka, M., Petito, C., Goodkin, K. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. The screening and identification of endogenous retrovirus free CEMPs. Lu, Q., Han, H., Lian, Z., Li, N., Zhang, Q., Zhao, Z., Pei, D., Zhang, X., Wu, C. Sci. China, C, Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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