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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Body Burden

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Disease relevance of Body Burden

  • These results do not lend support to the hypothesis that DDT is causally related to breast cancer at the body-burden levels found in our study population but do not exclude the possibility that higher levels of exposure could still play a role in the etiology of this tumor [1].
  • If N-nitroso compounds formed in vivo are among the causative factors for esophageal cancer in this area of northern China, ascorbic acid appears to be effective in lowering the body burden of these carcinogenic compounds, thus offering a rational basis for long-term intervention studies in this area [2].
  • Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake [3].
  • We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight) [4].
  • Dialysis therapy may be required both to correct azotemia and to reduce the body burden of urate [5].

High impact information on Body Burden

  • At present there are no suitable methods either to measure the body burden of cadmium or to treat cadmium poisoning [6].
  • Penicillamine was shown to be an effective chelator of mercury when coupled with a mobilization test to assess body burden [7].
  • Daily human exposure to DEHP in the U.S. is significant, and occupational and clinical exposures from DEHP-plasticized medical devices, e.g., blood bags, hemodialysis tubing, and nasogastric feeding tubes, increase body burden levels [8].
  • Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disease that greatly increases the body burden of iron and the risk of hepatic disease among homozygotes [9].
  • Greater expiration of azomethane and decreased conversion of AOM to MAM, both seen with restriction of dietary protein, were associated with a smaller body burden of DMH metabolites [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Body Burden


Biological context of Body Burden


Anatomical context of Body Burden

  • WT and SLP-76(-/-) SLP-65(-/-) mice survived acute, low-dose infection and showed no difference in the number of liver or spleen LM colony-forming units, a measure of the total body burden of this organism [21].
  • The dose-dependent changes in urinary excretion elicited by AT-125 were paralleled by increased rates of decline of 203Hg body burden and decreased rates of excretion in the feces [22].
  • Level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PCDD/Fs, PCBs) in human milk and the input to infant body burden [23].
  • Subsequently, according to the hypothesis based on the marmoset data, extensive analyses on surface receptors of white blood cells were performed in workers with moderately increased body burdens of TCDD, and for further hypothesis generation > 60 triple-labeling assays were performed with each of the blood samples [24].
  • The effect of blood cadmium (Cd), which reflects not only Cd body burden but also recent Cd exposure and communicates with fetal blood in the placenta, on newborn size at birth was investigated [25].

Associations of Body Burden with chemical compounds


Gene context of Body Burden

  • The value of CYP1A1 induction as a biomarker of PCB exposure was tenuous because neither CYP1A1 levels nor EROD activity correlated with total PCB body burden [31].
  • We did not detect any clear relationship or change in breast cancer risk based on joint ER/PR tumor status for body burden of PCBs, whether measured in blood serum or breast adipose tissue, by total PCBs or for specific congeners [32].
  • These results indicate a greater body burden of promutagens, resulting from skin application of CT, in GSTM1-null subjects [33].
  • These data suggest that Cd may increase the expression of CYP2A6 in liver, resulting in enhanced coumarin metabolism in subjects with high Cd body burden [34].
  • A stained-glass artisan with depression and a retired junkyard worker with congestive cardiomyopathy had increased mobilizable body burdens of lead by calcium ethylenediaminetetaacetic acid testing [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Body Burden


  1. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane serum levels and breast cancer risk: a case-control study from Mexico. López-Carrillo, L., Blair, A., López-Cervantes, M., Cebrián, M., Rueda, C., Reyes, R., Mohar, A., Bravo, J. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high- and low-risk areas for esophageal cancer in Northern China: endogenous formation of nitrosoproline and its inhibition by vitamin C. Lu, S.H., Ohshima, H., Fu, H.M., Tian, Y., Li, F.M., Blettner, M., Wahrendorf, J., Bartsch, H. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States. Tollefson, L., Cordle, F. Environ. Health Perspect. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of the immune system and systemic immune-complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations. Hultman, P., Lindh, U., Hörsted-Bindslev, P. J. Dent. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Acute uric acid nephropathy. Conger, J.D. Med. Clin. North Am. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Chelation of cadmium with BAL and DTPA in rats. Cherian, M.G. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Mercury poisoning from home gold ore processing. Use of penicillamine and dimercaprol. Snodgrass, W., Sullivan, J.B., Rumack, B.H., Hashimoto, C. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Phthalate-induced Leydig cell hyperplasia is associated with multiple endocrine disturbances. Akingbemi, B.T., Ge, R., Klinefelter, G.R., Zirkin, B.R., Hardy, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Iron nutriture in elderly individuals. Johnson, M.A., Fischer, J.G., Bowman, B.A., Gunter, E.W. FASEB J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of dietary protein concentration on yield of mutagenic metabolites from 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in mice. Kari, F.W., Johnston, J.B., Truex, C.R., Visek, W.J. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of cadmium body burden on immune response of school children. Ritz, B., Heinrich, J., Wjst, M., Wichmann, E., Krause, C. Arch. Environ. Health (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system. 2. In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens. Neubert, R., Maskow, L., Delgado, I., Helge, H., Neubert, D. Life Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in Belgium. Fierens, S., Mairesse, H., Heilier, J.F., De Burbure, C., Focant, J.F., Eppe, G., De Pauw, E., Bernard, A. Biomarkers (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparative metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rat and dog. van Ravenzwaay, B., Hardwick, T.D., Needham, D., Pethen, S., Lappin, G.J. Xenobiotica (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Aluminium mobilization following renal transplantation and the possible effect on susceptibility to bacterial sepsis. Davenport, A., Davison, A.M., Will, E.J., Newton, K.E., Toothill, C. Q. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure. Weisel, C., Yu, R., Roy, A., Georgopoulos, P. Environ. Health Perspect. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Blood lead and blood pressure: some implications for the situation in The Netherlands. de Kort, W.L., Zwennis, W.C. Environ. Health Perspect. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Urinary thymidine dimer as a marker of total body burden of UV-inflicted DNA damage in humans. Kotova, N., Hemminki, K., Segerbäck, D. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Infant exposure to dioxin-like compounds in breast milk. Lorber, M., Phillips, L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Lead, zinc and copper decorporation during calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate treatment of lead-poisoned children. Thomas, D.J., Chisolm, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Macrophage activation and Fcgamma receptor-mediated signaling do not require expression of the SLP-76 and SLP-65 adaptors. Nichols, K.E., Haines, K., Myung, P.S., Newbrough, S., Myers, E., Jumaa, H., Shedlock, D.J., Shen, H., Koretzky, G.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid on urinary excretion of methylmercury in the mouse. Mulder, K.M., Kostyniak, P.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PCDD/Fs, PCBs) in human milk and the input to infant body burden. Chao, H.R., Wang, S.L., Lee, C.C., Yu, H.Y., Lu, Y.K., Päpke, O. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of possible effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other congeners on lymphocyte receptors in Callithrix jacchus and man. Neubert, R., Golor, G., Maskow, L., Helge, H., Neubert, D. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Relationship between newborn size and mother's blood cadmium levels, Toyama, Japan. Nishijo, M., Tawara, K., Honda, R., Nakagawa, H., Tanebe, K., Saito, S. Arch. Environ. Health (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Encephalopathy in chronic renal failure responsive to deferoxamine therapy. Another manifestation of aluminum neurotoxicity. Sprague, S.M., Corwin, H.L., Wilson, R.S., Mayor, G.H., Tanner, C.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Correlation between electrocardiographic changes, serum digoxin, and total body digoxin content. Joubert, P., Kroening, B., Weintraub, M., Fleckenstein, L. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxinlike chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals. DeVito, M.J., Birnbaum, L.S., Farland, W.H., Gasiewicz, T.A. Environ. Health Perspect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Organochlorines, lead, and mercury in Akwesasne Mohawk youth. Schell, L.M., Hubicki, L.A., DeCaprio, A.P., Gallo, M.V., Ravenscroft, J., Tarbell, A., Jacobs, A., David, D., Worswick, P. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate as a delayed treatment for mercury removal in rats. Kostial, K., Kargacin, B., Blanusa, M., Piasek, M., Jones, M.M., Singh, P.K. Environ. Health Perspect. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 in dogs exposed to a chronic low dose of polychlorinated biphenyls. Korytko, P.J., Casey, A.C., Bush, B., Quimby, F.W. Toxicol. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer risk by combined estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Rusiecki, J.A., Holford, T.R., Zahm, S.H., Zheng, T. Eur. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Influence of metabolic genotype GSTM1 on levels of urinary mutagens in patients treated topically with coal tar. Gabbani, G., Pavanello, S., Nardini, B., Tognato, O., Bordin, A., Fornasa, C.V., Bezze, G., Clonfero, E. Mutat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium on renal tubular function and CYP2A6-mediated coumarin metabolism in healthy human subjects. Satarug, S., Nishijo, M., Ujjin, P., Vanavanitkun, Y., Baker, J.R., Moore, M.R. Toxicol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Adult chronic lead intoxication. A clinical review. Balestra, D.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Desferrioxamine infusion can modify EEG tracing in haemodialysed patients. Brancaccio, D., Avanzini, G., Padovese, P., Gallieni, M., Franceschetti, S., Panzica, F., Anelli, A., Colantonio, G., Martinelli, D., Bugiani, O. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Quantitative evaluation of urinary porphyrins as a measure of kidney mercury content and mercury body burden during prolonged methylmercury exposure in rats. Pingree, S.D., Simmonds, P.L., Rummel, K.T., Woods, J.S. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Lack of influence of dietary nitrate/nitrite on plasma nitrotyrosine levels measured using a competitive inhibition of binding ELISA assay. Oldreive, C., Bradley, N., Bruckdorfer, R., Rice-Evans, C. Free Radic. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Can epidemiological studies discern subtle neurological effects due to perinatal exposure to PCBs? Seegal, R.F. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Iron poisoning. Banner, W., Tong, T.G. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. (1986) [Pubmed]
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