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Chemical Compound Review

Pulsar     5-(methoxymethyl)-2-(4- methyl-5-oxo-4...

Synonyms: Imazamox, Raptor, Imazamox [ISO], SureCN18640, AGN-PC-00A0LC, ...
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Disease relevance of Pulsar

  • Signaling mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) is activated during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. mTOR is found in two complexes differing by the binding partner, rictor or raptor [1].
  • However, the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors alone in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas is only modest, potentially because these agents rather than acting as mTOR kinase inhibitors instead interfere with the function of only mTOR/raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR) complex and thus do not perturb all mTOR functions [2].
  • Two peaks of association here contain the psoriasis candidate genes SLC9A3R (solute carrier family 9, isoform 3 regulatory factor), NAT9 (N-acetyltransferase superfamily), and RAPTOR (rapamycin (TOR)) [3].
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a raptor handler and a wild bird fancier [4].
  • Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations [5].

High impact information on Pulsar


Biological context of Pulsar

  • Thus, raptor is an essential scaffold for the mTOR-catalyzed phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and mediates TOR action in vivo [9].
  • We propose that raptor is a missing component of the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels [8].
  • RNAi of C. elegans raptor yields an array of phenotypes that closely resemble those produced by inactivation of Ce-TOR [9].
  • Raptor is a 150 kDa mTOR binding protein that also binds 4EBP1 and p70alpha [9].
  • These data suggest that, during HCMV infection, the rictor- and raptor-containing complexes are modified such that their substrate specificities and rapamycin sensitivities are altered [1].

Anatomical context of Pulsar


Associations of Pulsar with other chemical compounds

  • The removal of extracellular amino acids or leucine alone inhibits the ability of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to signal to the raptor-dependent substrates, p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP [15].
  • Caffeine, wortmannin, LY294002, and rapamycin-FKBP12 also markedly inhibited mTOR activity in vitro, but unlike FTS, none of the other mTOR inhibitors appreciably changed the amount of raptor associated with mTOR [16].
  • Imi1 conferred resistance to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox, as shown by the in vitro assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity [17].
  • The RAPTOR performs sandwich fluoroimmunoassays on the surface of small polystyrene optical waveguides for analyte detection [14].
  • In this study, two raptor species, the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the little owl (Athene noctua), were investigated for lead and cadmium concentrations, using liver, kidneys, pectoral muscle, sternum bone, and feathers [18].

Gene context of Pulsar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pulsar

  • Using state-of-the-art sequence analysis and structure-prediction methods a caspase-like domain in the N-terminal region of raptor proteins has been identified [25].
  • Results of experiments involving size exclusion chromatography and coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged subunits provide evidence that the major insulin-responsive form is dimeric mTORC1, a structure containing two heterotrimers of mTOR, raptor, and mLST8 [26].
  • Developed to perform rapid fluoroimmunoassays in the field, the RAPTOR was designed to test samples for up to four different target analytes simultaneously [27].
  • The capabilities of the portable, automated fiber optic biosensor, RAPTOR, have recently been evaluated [27].
  • Plasma concentrations of LH were measured by a specific radioimmunoassay and pulsatile LH secretion was analysed using the Pulsar algorithm [28].


  1. Human cytomegalovirus infection alters the substrate specificities and rapamycin sensitivities of raptor- and rictor-containing complexes. Kudchodkar, S.B., Yu, Y., Maguire, T.G., Alwine, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Silencing mammalian target of rapamycin signaling by small interfering RNA enhances rapamycin-induced autophagy in malignant glioma cells. Iwamaru, A., Kondo, Y., Iwado, E., Aoki, H., Fujiwara, K., Yokoyama, T., Mills, G.B., Kondo, S. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Investigation of the chromosome 17q25 PSORS2 locus in atopic dermatitis. Morar, N., Bowcock, A.M., Harper, J.I., Cookson, W.O., Moffatt, M.F. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a raptor handler and a wild bird fancier. Choy, A.C., Patterson, R., Ray, A.H., Roberts, M. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations. Stout, W.E., Cassini, A.G., Meece, J.K., Papp, J.M., Rosenfield, R.N., Reed, K.D. Avian Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. mTOR and S6K1 mediate assembly of the translation preinitiation complex through dynamic protein interchange and ordered phosphorylation events. Holz, M.K., Ballif, B.A., Gygi, S.P., Blenis, J. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A putative RUNX1 binding site variant between SLC9A3R1 and NAT9 is associated with susceptibility to psoriasis. Helms, C., Cao, L., Krueger, J.G., Wijsman, E.M., Chamian, F., Gordon, D., Heffernan, M., Daw, J.A., Robarge, J., Ott, J., Kwok, P.Y., Menter, A., Bowcock, A.M. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. mTOR interacts with raptor to form a nutrient-sensitive complex that signals to the cell growth machinery. Kim, D.H., Sarbassov, D.D., Ali, S.M., King, J.E., Latek, R.R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Sabatini, D.M. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Raptor, a binding partner of target of rapamycin (TOR), mediates TOR action. Hara, K., Maruki, Y., Long, X., Yoshino, K., Oshiro, N., Hidayat, S., Tokunaga, C., Avruch, J., Yonezawa, K. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Rictor, a novel binding partner of mTOR, defines a rapamycin-insensitive and raptor-independent pathway that regulates the cytoskeleton. Sarbassov, D.D., Ali, S.M., Kim, D.H., Guertin, D.A., Latek, R.R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Sabatini, D.M. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, with special reference to the European situation. Vos, J.G., Dybing, E., Greim, H.A., Ladefoged, O., Lambré, C., Tarazona, J.V., Brandt, I., Vethaak, A.D. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and peregrine falcon spermatozoa. Blanco, J.M., Gee, G., Wildt, D.E., Donoghue, A.M. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Different roles for the TOS and RAIP motifs of the translational regulator protein 4E-BP1 in the association with raptor and phosphorylation by mTOR in the regulation of cell size. Eguchi, S., Tokunaga, C., Hidayat, S., Oshiro, N., Yoshino, K., Kikkawa, U., Yonezawa, K. Genes Cells (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Improved fluoroimmunoassays using the dye Alexa Fluor 647 with the RAPTOR, a fiber optic biosensor. Anderson, G.P., Nerurkar, N.L. J. Immunol. Methods (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Rheb binding to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is regulated by amino acid sufficiency. Long, X., Ortiz-Vega, S., Lin, Y., Avruch, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity both in cells and in vitro by promoting dissociation of the mTOR-raptor complex. McMahon, L.P., Yue, W., Santen, R.J., Lawrence, J.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Introgression of an imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host). Perez-Jones, A., Mallory-Smith, C.A., Hansen, J.L., Zemetra, R.S. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Heavy metal contamination in little owl (Athene noctua) and common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from northern Italy. Battaglia, A., Ghidini, S., Campanini, G., Spaggiari, R. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Nutrients suppress phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling via raptor-dependent mTOR-mediated insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation. Tzatsos, A., Kandror, K.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Target of rapamycin (TOR)-signaling and RAIP motifs play distinct roles in the mammalian TOR-dependent phosphorylation of initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1. Beugnet, A., Wang, X., Proud, C.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Tor kinases are in distinct membrane-associated protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wedaman, K.P., Reinke, A., Anderson, S., Yates, J., McCaffery, J.M., Powers, T. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which branched-chain amino acids mediate translational control of protein synthesis. Kimball, S.R., Jefferson, L.S. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The Arabidopsis Mei2 homologue AML1 binds AtRaptor1B, the plant homologue of a major regulator of eukaryotic cell growth. Anderson, G.H., Hanson, M.R. BMC Plant Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is associated with phosphorylation of raptor by mTOR. Wang, L., Lawrence, J.C., Sturgill, T.W., Harris, T.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  25. Raptor protein contains a caspase-like domain. Ginalski, K., Zhang, H., Grishin, N.V. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by insulin is associated with stimulation of 4EBP1 binding to dimeric mTOR complex 1. Wang, L., Rhodes, C.J., Lawrence, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Multi-analyte interrogation using the fiber optic biosensor. Anderson, G.P., King, K.D., Gaffney, K.L., Johnson, L.H. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor using excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters in control of pulsatile secretion of LH during sexual development in Holstein bull calves. Shahab, M., Nusser, K.D., Peters, J.L., Deaver, D.R. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1995) [Pubmed]
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