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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Sternum


High impact information on Sternum

  • Here we describe the isolation and identification of a major cartilage glycoprotein which is co-extracted along with typical hyaline cartilage components such as collagen types II and IX from chicken embryo sternum [6].
  • The murine paired box-containing gene Pax1 is required for normal development of the vertebral column, the sternum, and the scapula [7].
  • Primary cell cultures from fetal bovine sternum were developed in Coon's modified Ham's F-12 medium containing 10% Nu-Serum, 1% Ultroser-G, and 200 mg of galactose per liter [8].
  • Connexin 40, a target of transcription factor Tbx5, patterns wrist, digits, and sternum [9].
  • Our study strongly suggests that Cx40 deficiency accounts for many skeletal malformations in HOS and that Tbx5 regulation of Cx40 plays a critical role in the exquisite developmental patterning of the forelimbs and sternum [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sternum


Biological context of Sternum


Anatomical context of Sternum

  • These findings show that Fgfr1-mediated developmental pathways exhibit differing signalling dynamics, whereby development of the cranial sutures and sternum follows a morphogen mode, whereas development of the vertebral column and the hind limbs has threshold signalling properties [20].
  • Proliferating chondrocytes, located in four distinct areas of the developing sternum, all contained high levels of c-myc transcripts, whereas postmitotic chondrocytes (such as hypertrophic chondrocytes) contained undetectable amounts [21].
  • Affinity-purified antibodies detect matrilin-3 expression in a variety of mouse cartilaginous tissues, such as sternum, articular, and epiphyseal cartilage, and in the cartilage anlage of developing bones [22].
  • We found that proliferating immature cartilage from chick embryo tibia and sternum contained significant amounts of syndecan-3 mRNA, whereas mature hypertrophic cartilage contained markedly lower transcript levels [23].
  • The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor myogenin plays an essential role in the differentiation of skeletal muscle and, secondarily, in rib and sternum formation during mouse development [24].

Associations of Sternum with chemical compounds

  • The 115-kDa chain of sternum PG-Lt consists of a core 68-kDa polypeptide to which the chondroitin sulfate chains are attached [25].
  • The mRNA for type II collagen was purified from embryonic chick sternum or from purified sternal chondrocytes with guanidine thiocyanate as the extractant [26].
  • Gallium-67 tumor avidity was scored (0-6) relative to accumulation in the sternum and the liver [27].
  • Vitamin D3 decreased uptake by dog bone (B) as measured in rib and sternum, increasing L/B from 1.10 +/- 0.23 to 2.30 +/- 0.52 (p = 0.06) X (L) was positively, (p less than 0.005) and uptake by sternum was negatively (p less than 0.05) correlated with serum [Ca] and [P], respectively [28].
  • Incorporation of [35S]]sulphate, [3H]glucose and [3H]serine into glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of embryonic-chicken sternum was measured in vitro in incubation medium containing 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside at low concentrations, and in the absence of inhibitors of protein synthesis [29].

Gene context of Sternum

  • Misexpression of Hoxd-12 in other lateral plate derivatives (sternum, pelvis) likewise phenocopies several luxoid/luxate class mouse mutants that all share ectopic Shh signalling [30].
  • The defects in sternum development in Bmp6 null mice are likely to be associated with a transient early expression of Bmp6 in the sternal bands, prior to ossification [31].
  • In the ribs, Bmp4 and Bmp7 seem to act in the same pathway to assure proper guidance of mesenchymal condensations of the ribs extending toward the sternum [32].
  • The results of these studies suggest a cell autonomous role for En-1 in generation and/or survival of mid-hindbrain precursor cells and also a non-cell autonomous role in signalling normal development of the limbs and possibly sternum [33].
  • In situ hybridization with probes specific for the AD2, AD1, and C repeats shows that these splice variants are expressed at sites of active tissue modeling and fibronectin expression in the developing avian feather bud and sternum [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sternum


  1. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the sternum. A complication of polymer application during sternotomy repair. Rosen, R.J., Kricun, M.E., Pais, M.J., Steiner, R.M. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Possible case of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome in a prehistoric skeleton from west-central Illinois. Wilbur, A.K. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Granulomatous osteomyelitis of the sternum presenting with a parasternal mass: a possible relation to the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Karnak, I., Akçören, Z., Göğüş, S., Cağlar, M., Tanyel, F.C. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Fewer reoperations and shorter stay in the cardiac surgical ward when stabilising the sternum with the Ley prosthesis in post-operative mediastinitis. Astudillo, R., Vaage, J., Myhre, U., Karevold, A., Gårdlund, B. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Toxicological consequences of chloroquine and ethanol on the developing fetus. Sharma, A., Rawat, A.K. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. A major, six-armed glycoprotein from embryonic cartilage. Vaughan, L., Huber, S., Chiquet, M., Winterhalter, K.H. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Targeted disruption of Pax1 defines its null phenotype and proves haploinsufficiency. Wilm, B., Dahl, E., Peters, H., Balling, R., Imai, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloned endothelial cells from fetal bovine bone. Streeten, E.A., Ornberg, R., Curcio, F., Sakaguchi, K., Marx, S., Aurbach, G.D., Brandi, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Connexin 40, a target of transcription factor Tbx5, patterns wrist, digits, and sternum. Pizard, A., Burgon, P.G., Paul, D.L., Bruneau, B.G., Seidman, C.E., Seidman, J.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcutaneous billrubinometer in assessment of neonatal jaundice in northern India. Mahajan, G., Kaushal, R.K., Sankhyan, N., Sharma, R.L., Nakra, M. Indian pediatrics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Differences in skin flora between inpatients and chronically ill outpatients. Larson, E.L., Cronquist, A.B., Whittier, S., Lai, L., Lyle, C.T., Della Latta, P. Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Osteomyelitis of the sternum secondary to steroid injection: case report. Kronthal, A.J., Pope, T.L., Keats, T.E. Virginia medical. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Case report 414: Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin disease involving sternum and chest wall. Sullivan, W.T., Solonick, D.M. Skeletal radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. The Cantrell-sequence: a result of maternal exposure to aminopropionitriles? Dembinski, J., Heyl, W., Steidel, K., Hermanns, B., Hörnchen, H., Schröder, W. American journal of perinatology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. undulated phenotypes suggest a role of Pax-1 for the development of vertebral and extravertebral structures. Dietrich, S., Gruss, P. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Basic fibroblast growth factor may improve devascularized sternal healing. Iwakura, A., Tabata, Y., Nishimura, K., Nakamura, T., Shimizu, Y., Fujita, M., Komeda, M. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Pterygium colli medianum and midline cervical cleft: midline anomalies in the sense of a developmental field defect. Godbersen, S., Heckel, V., Wiedemann, H.R. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Source and route of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis transmitted to the surgical wound during cardio-thoracic surgery. Possibility of preventing wound contamination by use of special scrub suits. Tammelin, A., Hambraeus, A., Ståhle, E. J. Hosp. Infect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. L-arginine effects on myocardial stress in cardiac surgery: preliminary results. Colagrande, L., Formica, F., Porta, F., Brustia, M., Avalli, L., Sangalli, F., Muratore, M., Paolini, G. Italian heart journal : official journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Skeletal development is regulated by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signalling dynamics. Hajihosseini, M.K., Lalioti, M.D., Arthaud, S., Burgar, H.R., Brown, J.M., Twigg, S.R., Wilkie, A.O., Heath, J.K. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression and role of c-myc in chondrocytes undergoing endochondral ossification. Iwamoto, M., Yagami, K., Lu Valle, P., Olsen, B.R., Petropoulos, C.J., Ewert, D.L., Pacifici, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular structure and tissue distribution of matrilin-3, a filament-forming extracellular matrix protein expressed during skeletal development. Klatt, A.R., Nitsche, D.P., Kobbe, B., Mörgelin, M., Paulsson, M., Wagener, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Syndecan-3 and the control of chondrocyte proliferation during endochondral ossification. Shimazu, A., Nah, H.D., Kirsch, T., Koyama, E., Leatherman, J.L., Golden, E.B., Kosher, R.A., Pacifici, M. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. A hypomorphic myogenin allele reveals distinct myogenin expression levels required for viability, skeletal muscle development, and sternum formation. Vivian, J.L., Gan, L., Olson, E.N., Klein, W.H. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Proteoglycan Lt from chicken embryo sternum identified as type IX collagen. Vaughan, L., Winterhalter, K.H., Bruckner, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Construction and characterization of type II collagen complementary deoxyribonucleic acid clones. Lukens, L.N., Frischauf, A.M., Pawlowski, P.J., Brierley, G.T., Lehrach, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Gallium-67-citrate imaging in extragonadal and gonadal seminomas: relationship to radiologic findings. Uchiyama, M., Kantoff, P.W., Kaplan, W.D. J. Nucl. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of vitamin D3 on imaging of experimental myocardial infarcts with technetium-99m pyrophosphate: further studies of the role of calcium. Carr, E.A., Carroll, M., Gona, J.M., Balderman, S.C., Montes, M., Steinbach, J.J. J. Nucl. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of beta-D-xylosides on chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis in embryonic chicken cartilage in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Gibson, K.D., Segen, B.J., Audhya, T.K. Biochem. J. (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Hoxd-12 differentially affects preaxial and postaxial chondrogenic branches in the limb and regulates Sonic hedgehog in a positive feedback loop. Knezevic, V., De Santo, R., Schughart, K., Huffstadt, U., Chiang, C., Mahon, K.A., Mackem, S. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Mice lacking Bmp6 function. Solloway, M.J., Dudley, A.T., Bikoff, E.K., Lyons, K.M., Hogan, B.L., Robertson, E.J. Dev. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Skeletal abnormalities in doubly heterozygous Bmp4 and Bmp7 mice. Katagiri, T., Boorla, S., Frendo, J.L., Hogan, B.L., Karsenty, G. Dev. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Multiple developmental defects in Engrailed-1 mutant mice: an early mid-hindbrain deletion and patterning defects in forelimbs and sternum. Wurst, W., Auerbach, A.B., Joyner, A.L. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Cell-adhesive responses to tenascin-C splice variants involve formation of fascin microspikes. Fischer, D., Tucker, R.P., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Adams, J.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Primary structure of matrilin-3, a new member of a family of extracellular matrix proteins related to cartilage matrix protein (matrilin-1) and von Willebrand factor. Wagener, R., Kobbe, B., Paulsson, M. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Video-assisted extended thymectomy in patients with thymoma by lifting the sternum: is it safe? Aubert, A., Chaffanjon, P., Brichon, P.Y. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Functional assessment of chest wall integrity after methylmethacrylate reconstruction. Lardinois, D., Müller, M., Furrer, M., Banic, A., Gugger, M., Krueger, T., Ris, H.B. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Dilation of the internal mammary artery by external papaverine application to the pedicle--an improved method. Dregelid, E., Heldal, K., Andersen, K.S., Stangeland, L., Svendsen, E. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Sternal tuberculosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sipsas, N.V., Panayiotakopoulos, G.D., Zormpala, A., Thanos, L., Artinopoulos, C., Kordossis, T. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
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