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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Egg Shell

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Disease relevance of Egg Shell

  • These pollutants exerted no adverse effects on egg production, egg weight, egg shell thickness, feed consumption, adult body weight changes, livability and fertility after 8 weeks of biphenyl feeding, irrespective of biphenyl level or compound [1].
  • An increasing reduction in Listeria population was observed with increasing chlorine concentration from 16 to 77 mg/liter and treatment time from 1 to 5 min, resulting in a maximal reduction of 3.70 log CFU per shell egg compared with a deionized water wash for 5 min [2].
  • This is probably due to washing the lipids away from this layer during the dehydration of deeper layers of egg-shells that are imperfectly fixed with glutaraldehyde [3].

High impact information on Egg Shell

  • Localization of lysyl oxidase in hen oviduct: implications in egg shell membrane formation and composition [4].
  • The proposed protein is rich in glycine, lysine, and tyrosine and its overall amino acid composition agrees with that reported for the F. hepatica egg shell [5].
  • Expression of the CaBP occurs simultaneously with the onset of calcium absorption from the egg shell by the CAM, and the temporal increase in CaBP activity is coincident with calcium deposition in the embryo [6].
  • We found that the Dif protein was capable of restoring embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern elements and was able to define polarity correctly with respect to the orientation of the egg shell [7].
  • We conclude that a third EDG encodes a cuticle protein because the conceptual glycine-rich protein contains sequence motifs similar to those found in insect egg shell proteins and vertebrate cytokeratins and because expression of this gene is limited to tissues that deposit the pupal cuticle [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Egg Shell

  • In summary, DDE and DDT were without effect on egg shell quality or most other reproductive factors, but DDE at 300 p.p.m. did exert a detrimental effect on adult body weights, fertility and mortality [9].
  • The addition of L-carnitine and sodium humate alone or in combination did not significantly affect body weight, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio, mortality, egg-shell thickness, egg yolk index and the percentages of egg-shell, albumen and yolk [10].

Biological context of Egg Shell


Anatomical context of Egg Shell

  • Similar sequences appear also in other proteins, i.e. elastin, spidroin, spider minor ampullate silk proteins, in matrix proteins of the chorion or egg shell membrane of insects and others [15].
  • Immunocytochemical studies of unfertilized and developing Ascaris eggs revealed association of protein tyrosine kinase and protein tyrosine phosphatase with the egg shell, in addition to their presence in the neighborhood of mitochondria [16].
  • Since Ca is transported against a concentration gradient between blood plasma, and the lumen of the shell gland, it is suggested that DDE, by inhibiting the Ca2+-Mg2+-activated ATPase, decreased the Ca translocation over the egg shell gland mucosa [17].

Associations of Egg Shell with chemical compounds

  • However, plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are highest immediately before and during the egg shell calcification phase of the egg-laying cycle [18].
  • Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. XXXIV. Relationship of the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolites to gonadal activity and egg shell formation in the quail [19].
  • Egg shell quality and cholecalciferol metabolism in aged laying hens [20].
  • Changes in intestinal calcium absorption, calcium deposition into egg shell, and intestinal, renal and uterine calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in laying hens were related to changes in 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1-hydroxylase activity (1-hydroxylase), or to the supplementation of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1alpha-OH-CC) [21].
  • When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation [22].

Gene context of Egg Shell

  • Uterine and skin derived forms of microfilariae (mf) and earlier developing stages of the cattle filarial nematode Onchocerca gutturosa were examined for the lectin binding properties of their external surfaces (ie. egg shell and microfilarial cuticle) [23].
  • Involvement of osteopontin in egg shell formation in the laying chicken [24].
  • Although egg weight and percent of cracked eggs were higher and egg production and shell density (mg/cm2) were lower (significantly, P less than 0.01) in aged hens, shell weight, plasma Ca and duodenal and egg shell gland calbindin were similar to those of young hens [25].
  • We suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB [26].
  • The egg-shell consists of 5 layers: external uterine layer, internal uterine layer, vitelline layer, chitinous layer and lipid layer [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Egg Shell

  • Weanling rats fed a cariogenic diet supplemented with carbamyl phosphate, in combination with egg shell meal and trace elements, showed a striking reduction in the incidence of caries [28].
  • The effects of vitamin D3 sources, egg production and egg cycle on the genomic expression of calbindin (Mr 28,000) in the intestine and egg shell gland (ESG) of quail were characterized by Northern blot and solution hybridization, using synthetic oligonucleotide probe [29].
  • To estimate the nicarbazin consumption of birds that laid viable eggs (eggs that hatched or contained an embryo), a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to measure the concentration of DNC in egg shells [30].


  1. Toxicity of certain polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls on reproductive efficiency of caged chickens. Lillie, R.J., Cecil, H.C., Bitman, J., Fries, G.F., Verrett, J. Poult. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Efficacy of electrolyzed water in inactivating Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on shell eggs. Park, C.M., Hung, Y.C., Lin, C.S., Brackett, R.E. J. Food Prot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Ultrastructure of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758. I. Egg-shells. Lýsek, H., Malínský, J., Janisch, R. Folia Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Localization of lysyl oxidase in hen oviduct: implications in egg shell membrane formation and composition. Harris, E.D., Blount, J.E., Leach, R.M. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and characterization of a female genital complex cDNA from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Zurita, M., Bieber, D., Ringold, G., Mansour, T.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcium-binding protein of chorioallantoic membrane: identification and development expression. Tuan, R.S., Scott, W.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. The Dorsal-related immunity factor (Dif) can define the dorsal-ventral axis of polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Stein, D., Goltz, J.S., Jurcsak, J., Stevens, L. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. 20-Hydroxyecdysone is required for, and negatively regulates, transcription of Drosophila pupal cuticle protein genes. Apple, R.T., Fristrom, J.W. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of DDE, DDT and calcium on the performance of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Robson, W.A., Arscott, G.H., Tinsley, I.J. Poult. Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of L-carnitine and humate in laying quail diets. Yalçin, S., Ergün, A., Erol, H., Yalçin, S., Ozsoy, B. Acta Vet. Hung. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic analysis of two female-sterile loci affecting eggshell integrity and embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Degelmann, A., Hardy, P.A., Mahowald, A.P. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Kinetics of hydrolysis of sucrose catalyzed by invertase immobilized on egg shells and on zeolites. Sunitha, J., Sai Prakash, P.K. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of administering two prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and aspirin) on egg production in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Gilbert, A.B., Mitchell, G.G., Davidson, M.F., Laughlin, K.F., Hughes, B.O. Res. Vet. Sci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. A role for amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the neuropeptide precursor processing protease PC2, in triggering hatching behavior. Siekhaus, D.E., Fuller, R.S. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. On (GGLGY) synthetic repeating sequences of lamprin and analogous sequences. Bochicchio, B., Pepe, A., Tamburro, A.M. Matrix Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Ascaris suum: protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases in oocytes and developing stages. Wimmer, M., Schmid, B., Tag, C., Hofer, H.W. Exp. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of p-p'-DDE administered in vivo and in vitro on Ca2+ binding and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity in egg shell gland mucose of ducks. Lundholm, C.E. Acta pharmacologica et toxicologica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and formation of medullary bone in the egg-laying hen. Castillo, L., Tanaka, Y., Wineland, M.J., Jowsey, J.O., DeLuca, H.F. Endocrinology (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Studies on the mode of action of calciferol. XXXIV. Relationship of the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolites to gonadal activity and egg shell formation in the quail. Bar, A., Norman, A.W. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Egg shell quality and cholecalciferol metabolism in aged laying hens. Bar, A., Striem, S., Rosenberg, J., Hurwitz, S. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential response of calcium transport systems in laying hens to exogenous and endogenous changes in vitamin D status. Bar, A., Cohen, A., Eisner, U., Risenfeld, G., Hurwitz, S. J. Nutr. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation. Brownell, S.A., Nelson, K.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Lectin binding to the developing forms of Onchocerca gutturosa microfilariae. Nwachukwu, M.A., Mackenzie, C.D., Litchfield, T.M., Howard, G. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of osteopontin in egg shell formation in the laying chicken. Pines, M., Knopov, V., Bar, A. Matrix Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Vitamin D metabolism and calbindin (calcium-binding protein) in aged laying hens. Bar, A., Hurwitz, S. J. Nutr. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism. Yamashita, F., Hayashi, M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. The structure and formation of the egg-shell of Syphacia obvelata Rudolphi (Nematoda: Oxyurida). Wharton, D.A. Parasitology (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of selected dietary additives on the incidence of dental caries in the rat. Steinman, R.R., Leonora, J. J. Dent. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulation of quail intestinal and egg shell gland calbindin (Mr 28,000) gene expression by vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and egg laying. Striem, S., Bar, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. 4,4'-Dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) concentrations in egg shells as a predictor of nicarbazin consumption and DNC dose in goose eggs. Stahl, R.S., VerCauteren, K.C., Kohler, D., Johnston, J.J. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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