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Gene Review

AADAC  -  arylacetamide deacetylase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Arylacetamide deacetylase, CES5A1, DAC
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Disease relevance of AADAC


Psychiatry related information on AADAC


High impact information on AADAC


Chemical compound and disease context of AADAC


Biological context of AADAC


Anatomical context of AADAC


Associations of AADAC with chemical compounds

  • Activity determination and immunoblot analysis of DAC in human target tissues for arylamine carcinogens revealed that in extrahepatic tissues, additional enzymes are responsible for any deacetylation activity, whereas a single enzyme predominantly catalyzes this hydrolytic reaction in liver [1].
  • Previous studies revealed that the luminal orientation of 11beta-HSD1 and 50-kDa esterase/arylacetamide deacetylase (E3) is determined by their highly similar N-terminal transmembrane domains [19].
  • Consequently, efforts have been directed at re-expressing genes, including genes that affect drug sensitivity, using 5-azacytidine and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC, decitabine) as demethylating agents [20].
  • The three complexes investigated were the copper(II) complex Cu(DAC)2+ (DAC = 1,8-bis(9-methylanthracyl)cyclam, cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), the N-nitrosylated ligand DAC-NO, and the Roussin's red salt ester (mu-S,mu-S')-protoporphyrin-IX-bis(2-thioethyl ester)tetranitrosyldiiron (PPIX-RSE) [21].
  • MAL gene transcription was induced in three out of 13 esophageal carcinoma cell lines by treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), and in nine additional cell lines by simultaneous treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of deacetylation, and DAC [22].

Other interactions of AADAC


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AADAC

  • Consistent with loss of MMR having no effect on sensitivity in vitro to Taxol, DAC treatment has no effect on the Taxol sensitivity of the xenografts [8].
  • Induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis using a slightly toxic dose of DAC may therefore be a strategy for treating lung cancer, and DAC treatment may have clinical implications when combined with chemotherapy or apoptosis-inducing gene therapy [4].
  • Our results suggest that, because of the higher expression of these genes and the possible induction of these genes by DAC, patients with gastric carcinoma may, therefore, be potential candidates for tumor-specific immunotherapy directed against these antigens [24].
  • A rhabdomyosarcoma cell line resistant to actinomycin D (RD-DAC) has been used as an in vitro model to investigate, with light and electron microscopy, the degree of differentiation in multidrug-resistant cells [25].
  • Treatment of K562/ADM cells with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine; DAC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, caused demethylation of the repressor binding site of MDR-1 gene, as assessed by MSP, and also decreased P-gp expression, as assessed by flow cytometric and Northern blot analysis [26].


  1. Human liver arylacetamide deacetylase. Molecular cloning of a novel esterase involved in the metabolic activation of arylamine carcinogens with high sequence similarity to hormone-sensitive lipase. Probst, M.R., Beer, M., Beer, D., Jenö, P., Meyer, U.A., Gasser, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Low-dose 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a multicenter phase II study in elderly patients. Wijermans, P., Lübbert, M., Verhoef, G., Bosly, A., Ravoet, C., Andre, M., Ferrant, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of the MAGE-1 tumor antigen is up-regulated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Weber, J., Salgaller, M., Samid, D., Johnson, B., Herlyn, M., Lassam, N., Treisman, J., Rosenberg, S.A. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine upregulates caspase-9 expression cooperating with p53-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Gomyo, Y., Sasaki, J., Branch, C., Roth, J.A., Mukhopadhyay, T. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Two instruments to measure interdisciplinary bioethical decision making. Baggs, J.G. Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Sustained IL-6/STAT-3 signaling in cholangiocarcinoma cells due to SOCS-3 epigenetic silencing. Isomoto, H., Mott, J.L., Kobayashi, S., Werneburg, N.W., Bronk, S.F., Haan, S., Gores, G.J. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. SOCS-1, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, is frequently silenced by methylation in multiple myeloma. Galm, O., Yoshikawa, H., Esteller, M., Osieka, R., Herman, J.G. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversal of drug resistance in human tumor xenografts by 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine-induced demethylation of the hMLH1 gene promoter. Plumb, J.A., Strathdee, G., Sludden, J., Kaye, S.B., Brown, R. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Inverse expression of mdr 1 and c-myc genes in a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line resistant to actinomycin d. Prados, J., Melguizo, C., Fernández, A., Aránega, A.E., Alvarez, L., Aránega, A. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Preliminary results with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC)-containing chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia. The EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group. Willemze, R., Archimbaud, E., Muus, P. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Induction of MAGE-3 expression in lung and esophageal cancer cells. Weiser, T.S., Ohnmacht, G.A., Guo, Z.S., Fischette, M.R., Chen, G.A., Hong, J.A., Nguyen, D.M., Schrump, D.S. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical experience with decitabine in North American patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Yee, K.W., Jabbour, E., Kantarjian, H.M., Giles, F.J. Ann. Hematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemotherapy of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma with use of DVA (vindesine sulfate), adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (DAC). Brenner, J., Magill, G.B., Wissel, P., Sordillo, P.P. Cancer (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Radiation hybrid mapping of human arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) locus to chromosome 3. Yamazaki, K., Kusano, K., Tadano, K., Tanaka, I. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on proliferation, differentiation and p15/INK4b regulation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Guo, Y., Engelhardt, M., Wider, D., Abdelkarim, M., Lübbert, M. Leukemia (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Rexpression of HLA class I antigens and restoration of antigen-specific CTL response in melanoma cells following 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Serrano, A., Tanzarella, S., Lionello, I., Mendez, R., Traversari, C., Ruiz-Cabello, F., Garrido, F. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and characterization of rhesus monkey liver amido hydrolases and their roles in the metabolic polymorphism for E6123, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist. Kusano, K., Seko, T., Tanaka, S., Shikata, Y., Ando, T., Ida, S., Hosokawa, M., Satoh, T., Yuzuriha, T., Horie, T. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Biodistribution of radiolabeled adenosylcobalamin in patients diagnosed with various malignancies. Collins, D.A., Hogenkamp, H.P., O'Connor, M.K., Naylor, S., Benson, L.M., Hardyman, T.J., Thorson, L.M. Mayo Clin. Proc. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Appropriate function of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen is dependent on its N-terminal region sharing similar topological determinants with 50-kDa esterase. Frick, C., Atanasov, A.G., Arnold, P., Ozols, J., Odermatt, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Strategies for reversing drug resistance. Fojo, T., Bates, S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Probing shapes of bichromophoric metal-organic complexes using ion mobility mass spectrometry. Baker, E.S., Bushnell, J.E., Wecksler, S.R., Lim, M.D., Manard, M.J., Dupuis, N.F., Ford, P.C., Bowers, M.T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. MAL gene expression in esophageal cancer suppresses motility, invasion and tumorigenicity and enhances apoptosis through the Fas pathway. Mimori, K., Shiraishi, T., Mashino, K., Sonoda, H., Yamashita, K., Yoshinaga, K., Masuda, T., Utsunomiya, T., Alonso, M.A., Inoue, H., Mori, M. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Synthesis and function of hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein. Gibbons, G.F., Wiggins, D., Brown, A.M., Hebbachi, A.M. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of BAGE, GAGE, and MAGE genes in human gastric carcinoma. Li, J., Yang, Y., Fujie, T., Baba, K., Ueo, H., Mori, M., Akiyoshi, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Differentiation of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line after antineoplastic drug treatment. Melguizo, C., Prados, J., Aneiros, J., Fernandez, J.E., Velez, C., Aranega, A. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Decitabine (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine) decreased DNA methylation and expression of MDR-1 gene in K562/ADM cells. Ando, T., Nishimura, M., Oka, Y. Leukemia (2000) [Pubmed]
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