The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Ctse  -  cathepsin E

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A430072O03Rik, C920004C08Rik, CE, CatE, Cathepsin E
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ctse

  • Our studies initially demonstrated that catechol estrogen (CE) quinone metabolites are formed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture [1].
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of cathepsin E in immune defense systems against bacterial infection [2].
  • Transcriptional profiling of APC(Min/+) mouse intestinal epithelial tissue has revealed that cathepsin E (catE) manifests high relative expression in adenomas and carcinomas relative to normal epithelium [3].
  • Cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/-)) mice showed dramatically increased susceptibility to infection with both the Gram-positive bacterium Staphyrococcus aureus, and the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis when compared with syngeneic wild-type mice, most likely due to impaired regulation of bacterial elimination [2].

High impact information on Ctse

  • This relationship led us to postulate that oxidation of the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy catechol estrogens (CE) of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) to catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones (CE-3, 4-Q) results in electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind to DNA to form depurinating adducts [4].
  • Some of these genes, such as cathepsin E and Igf2, have been previously implicated in tumor cell migration and invasion [5].
  • Cathepsin E: a novel target for regulation by class II transactivator [6].
  • Further treatment by the air-liquid interface environment modified the differentiated state of the pit cells (pit top cell stage); resulting in the expression of cathepsin E, the disappearance of glycogen granules and the apical accumulation of secretory granules along with an increase in apoptotic cells [7].
  • In primary cultured murine microglia, CE was localized mainly in early endosomes and its expression level was markedly increased upon stimulation with interferon-gamma [8].

Biological context of Ctse


Anatomical context of Ctse

  • In conclusion, CE is required for the generation of an antigenic epitope from OVA but not for the processing of Ii in microglia [8].
  • Moreover, mast-cell degranulation resulted in the release of cathepsin E [13].
  • Functional studies using a highly specific inhibitor of cathepsin E show that this enzyme is essential for the processing of ovalbumin by this cell line [9].
  • At the light-microscopic level, increased immunoreactivities for CE in the brain stem of 2-month-old SAMP8 and P10 were found in reactive microglial cells clustered at the spongy areas but not in microglial cells with resting or ramified morphology and astrocytes [10].
  • Characteristic distribution of cathepsin E which immunologically cross-reacts with the 86-kDa acid proteinase from rat gastric mucosa [14].

Associations of Ctse with chemical compounds

  • Taken together, our results indicate that cathepsin E is located in mast-cell secretory granules in complex with heparin proteoglycans, and that it has a role in the processing of procarboxypeptidase A into active protease [13].
  • The ratio of the soluble/sedimentable cathepsin E content was 1.1, 1.4, 0.9, and 0.7 in cells after 0, 1, 4, and 7 days of DMSO treatment, respectively [15].
  • Cathepsin E-type enzymes partially purified from these five tissues were precipitated in the same manner by the specific antiserum, and they had the same molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility, and resistance against denaturation by 4 M urea [14].
  • The low pH optimum may distinguish this enzyme from the known rat and mouse aspartic acid proteinases including cathepsin D and cathepsin E [16].
  • 4-CE conjugates with glutathione or its hydrolytic products (cysteine and N-acetylcysteine) were detected in picomole amounts in both tumors and hyperplastic mammary tissue, demonstrating the formation of CE-3,4-quinones [17].

Other interactions of Ctse


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ctse

  • In accordance with this notion, affinity chromatography showed that recombinant cathepsin E bound strongly to heparin under acidic conditions (the conditions prevailing in mast-cell granules) but not at neutral pH [13].
  • Immunoblotting analyses revealed that CE in the brain stem of 2-month-old SAMP10 consisted of only the mature form of 42 kDa, whereas CD in this tissue is composed of mainly the mature form of 44 kDa and partially its degradation products [10].


  1. Genotoxic metabolites of estradiol in breast: potential mechanism of estradiol induced carcinogenesis. Yue, W., Santen, R.J., Wang, J.P., Li, Y., Verderame, M.F., Bocchinfuso, W.P., Korach, K.S., Devanesan, P., Todorovic, R., Rogan, E.G., Cavalieri, E.L. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Cathepsin E-deficient mice show increased susceptibility to bacterial infection associated with the decreased expression of multiple cell surface Toll-like receptors. Tsukuba, T., Yamamoto, S., Yanagawa, M., Okamoto, K., Okamoto, Y., Nakayama, K.I., Kadowaki, T., Yamamoto, K. J. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Cathepsin E is a specific marker of dysplasia in APC mouse intestine. Busquets, L., Guillen, H., DeFord, M.E., Suckow, M.A., Navari, R.M., Castellino, F.J., Prorok, M. Tumour Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular origin of cancer: catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones as endogenous tumor initiators. Cavalieri, E.L., Stack, D.E., Devanesan, P.D., Todorovic, R., Dwivedy, I., Higginbotham, S., Johansson, S.L., Patil, K.D., Gross, M.L., Gooden, J.K., Ramanathan, R., Cerny, R.L., Rogan, E.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The absence of p53 promotes metastasis in a novel somatic mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lewis, B.C., Klimstra, D.S., Socci, N.D., Xu, S., Koutcher, J.A., Varmus, H.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Cathepsin E: a novel target for regulation by class II transactivator. Yee, C.S., Yao, Y., Li, P., Klemsz, M.J., Blum, J.S., Chang, C.H. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Foveolar differentiation of mouse gastric mucosa in vitro. Ootani, A., Toda, S., Fujimoto, K., Sugihara, H. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of cathepsin E in exogenous antigen processing in primary cultured murine microglia. Nishioku, T., Hashimoto, K., Yamashita, K., Liou, S.Y., Kagamiishi, Y., Maegawa, H., Katsube, N., Peters, C., von Figura, K., Saftig, P., Katunuma, N., Yamamoto, K., Nakanishi, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Antigen processing for presentation by class II major histocompatibility complex requires cleavage by cathepsin E. Bennett, K., Levine, T., Ellis, J.S., Peanasky, R.J., Samloff, I.M., Kay, J., Chain, B.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased expression of cathepsins E and D in reactive microglial cells associated with spongiform degeneration in the brain stem of senescence-accelerated mouse. Amano, T., Nakanishi, H., Oka, M., Yamamoto, K. Exp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of allelic V kappa-1 region genes in inbred strains of mice. Ng, K.H., Lavigueur, A., Ricard, L., Boivrette, M., Maclean, S., Cloutier, D., Gibson, D.M. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Physiological importance of SR-BI in the in vivo metabolism of human HDL and LDL in male and female mice. Brodeur, M.R., Luangrath, V., Bourret, G., Falstrault, L., Brissette, L. J. Lipid Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A role for cathepsin E in the processing of mast-cell carboxypeptidase A. Henningsson, F., Yamamoto, K., Saftig, P., Reinheckel, T., Peters, C., Knight, S.D., Pejler, G. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Characteristic distribution of cathepsin E which immunologically cross-reacts with the 86-kDa acid proteinase from rat gastric mucosa. Muto, N., Yamamoto, M., Tani, S., Yonezawa, S. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis and intracellular distribution of cathepsins E and D in differentiating murine Friend erythroleukemia cells. Sakai, H., Kato, Y., Yamamoto, K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. A novel acid proteinase released by hybridoma cells. Karl, D.W., Donovan, M., Flickinger, M.C. Cytotechnology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Catechol estrogen metabolites and conjugates in mammary tumors and hyperplastic tissue from estrogen receptor-alpha knock-out (ERKO)/Wnt-1 mice: implications for initiation of mammary tumors. Devanesan, P., Santen, R.J., Bocchinfuso, W.P., Korach, K.S., Rogan, E.G., Cavalieri, E. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis of apolipoprotein E: Possible role in Alzheimer's disease. Zhou, W., Scott, S.A., Shelton, S.B., Crutcher, K.A. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Unique cathepsin D-type proteases in rat thoracic duct lymphocytes and in rat lymphoid tissues. Yago, N., Bowers, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities