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Gene Review

Ctse  -  cathepsin E

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CEA, CEB, Cathepsin E, Ctsea
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Disease relevance of Ctse

  • CEB induced a significant reduction in the medial hypertrophy of the aortic walls of SHRs and WKY rats associated with a reduction in medial hyperplasia [1].
  • BACKGROUND: The effect of genetic hypertension and of chronic therapy by calcium entry blocker (CEB, isradipine) on the function and structure of large arteries has been studied in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 30) and in their normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (n = 30) [1].
  • Hepatic intra-arterial delivery of a retroviral vector expressing the cytosine deaminase gene, controlled by the CEA promoter and intraperitoneal treatment with 5-fluorocytosine suppresses growth of colorectal liver metastases [2].
  • In RLA/Verh rats, the cardiac and behavioral responses to the conditioned emotional stressor were bradycardia and immobility, suggesting an important role for the CEA in these rats [3].
  • The injection of LH-RH induced ovulation in constant estrous rats (CEA), made anovulatory either by frontal hypothalamic deafferentation (FHD), or by exposure to continuous light (CL), or by neonatal androgenization (NA) with 0.500 mg testosterone propionate (NA500) [4].

High impact information on Ctse


Chemical compound and disease context of Ctse


Biological context of Ctse


Anatomical context of Ctse


Associations of Ctse with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of oligosaccharide units suggested that rat cathepsin E possesses one N-linked carbohydrate unit, probably of the high mannose type [17].
  • Despite a high degree of similarity in the overall structure of CE between rat and other mammalian species, the first 11 residues in the NH2-terminal sequence of rat mature enzyme were significantly different from those of other species [10].
  • To study the roles of the catalytic activity, propeptide, and N-glycosylation of the intracellular aspartic proteinase cathepsin E in biosynthesis, processing, and intracellular trafficking, we constructed various rat cathepsin E mutants in which active-site Asp residues were changed to Ala or which lacked propeptides and N-glycosylation [18].
  • Consistent with these in vivo results, administration of glutamate to primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons resulted in a marked expression of this novel CE species [19].
  • Intracerebroventricular injection of kainate (KA) resulted in marked elevation of both mRNA and protein levels of CE in the rat hippocampal CA3 region, where the enzyme was mainly found in vulnerable neurons and activated microglia [19].

Other interactions of Ctse


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ctse

  • Immunoblotting analyses revealed that CE in thymocytes isolated from young rats consisted predominantly of a 46-kDa proform which was greatly converted into a 42-kDa mature form in DEX-treated thymocytes [23].
  • Here we examine the significance of residues in the motifs of rat cathepsin E by substitution of Asp98, Asp283, and Thr284 with other residues using site-directed mutagenesis [11].
  • Electron immunocytochemistry localized cathepsin E to endosomal vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum of M cells in rat and human ileum as well as of M-like cells in human palatine tonsil [12].
  • Wild-type cathepsin E expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells was mainly found in the LAMP-1-positive endosomal organelles, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy [18].
  • We previously reported a rhythm in PER2 expression in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that is identical in phase and sensitivity to adrenalectomy to that found in the CEA [5].


  1. Effect of chronic dihydropyridine (isradipine) on the large arterial walls of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Levy, B.I., Duriez, M., Phillipe, M., Poitevin, P., Michel, J.B. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Hepatic intra-arterial delivery of a retroviral vector expressing the cytosine deaminase gene, controlled by the CEA promoter and intraperitoneal treatment with 5-fluorocytosine suppresses growth of colorectal liver metastases. Humphreys, M.J., Ghaneh, P., Greenhalf, W., Campbell, F., Clayton, T.M., Everett, P., Huber, B.E., Richards, C.A., Ford, M.J., Neoptolemos, J.P. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Vasopressinergic modulation of stress responses in the central amygdala of the Roman high-avoidance and low-avoidance rat. Roozendaal, B., Wiersma, A., Driscoll, P., Koolhaas, J.M., Bohus, B. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Ovulation induced by LH-RH in rats made anovulatory by various experimental procedures. Trentini, G.P., de Gaetani, C.F., Campostrini, F. Neuroendocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. The central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala exhibit opposite diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock protein Period2. Lamont, E.W., Robinson, B., Stewart, J., Amir, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Endosomal proteolysis of internalized insulin at the C-terminal region of the B chain by cathepsin D. Authier, F., Metioui, M., Fabrega, S., Kouach, M., Briand, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of renin in rat aortic smooth muscle. Holycross, B.J., Saye, J., Harrison, J.K., Peach, M.J. Hypertension (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunohistochemically demonstrated variation in expression of cathepsin E between uracil-induced papillomatosis and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in rat urinary bladder. Yamamoto, S., Yonezawa, S., Ichinose, M., Miki, K., Masui, T., Fukushima, S., Inoue, H., Tatematsu, M. Virchows Arch. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Cigarette smoke increases intimal hyperplasia and homocysteine in a rat carotid endarterectomy. Davis, J.A., Brown, A.T., Chen, H., Wang, Y., Poirier, L.A., Eidt, J.F., Cruz, C.P., Moursi, M.M. J. Surg. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation and sequencing of two cDNA clones encoding rat spleen cathepsin E and analysis of the activation of purified procathepsin E. Okamoto, K., Yu, H., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y., Yamamoto, K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutational analysis of residues in two consensus motifs in the active sites of cathepsin E. Liu, J., Tsukuba, T., Okamoto, K., Ohishi, M., Yamamoto, K. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Cathepsin E in follicle associated epithelium of intestine and tonsils: localization to M cells and possible role in antigen processing. Finzi, G., Cornaggia, M., Capella, C., Fiocca, R., Bosi, F., Solcia, E., Samloff, I.M. Histochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential effect of lesioning of the central amygdala on the bradycardiac and behavioral response of the rat in relation to conditioned social and solitary stress. Roozendaal, B., Koolhaas, J.M., Bohus, B. Behav. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of cellular compartments involved in processing of cathepsin E in primary cultures of rat microglia. Sastradipura, D.F., Nakanishi, H., Tsukuba, T., Nishishita, K., Sakai, H., Kato, Y., Gotow, T., Uchiyama, Y., Yamamoto, K. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Age-related changes in activities and localizations of cathepsins D, E, B, and L in the rat brain tissues. Nakanishi, H., Tominaga, K., Amano, T., Hirotsu, I., Inoue, T., Yamamoto, K. Exp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Transient forebrain ischemia induces increased expression and specific localization of cathepsins E and D in rat hippocampus and neostriatum. Nakanishi, H., Tsukuba, T., Kondou, T., Tanaka, T., Yamamoto, K. Exp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural studies of rat cathepsin E: amino-terminal structure and carbohydrate units of mature enzyme. Yonezawa, S., Takahashi, T., Ichinose, M., Miki, K., Tanaka, J., Gasa, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of rat cathepsin E and mutants with changed active-site residues and lacking propeptides and N-glycosylation, expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Tsukuba, T., Ikeda, S., Okamoto, K., Yasuda, Y., Sakai, E., Kadowaki, T., Sakai, H., Yamamoto, K. FEBS J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Excitotoxin-induced neuronal death is associated with response of a unique intracellular aspartic proteinase, cathepsin E. Tominaga, K., Nakanishi, H., Yasuda, Y., Yamamoto, K. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of mucosal cells and enhance the expression of a gene for pepsinogen and other markers of differentiation in the stomach mucosa of the adult rat. Tsukada, S., Ichinose, M., Tatematsu, M., Tezuka, N., Yonezawa, S., Kakei, N., Matsushima, M., Miki, K., Kurokawa, K., Kageyama, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Microglial functions and proteases. Nakanishi, H. Mol. Neurobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Development and characterization of conditionally immortalized gastric epithelial cell lines from transgenic rats harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene. Tabuchi, Y., Arai, Y., Ohta, S., Shioya, H., Takahashi, R., Ueda, M., Takeguchi, N., Asano, S., Obinata, M. Cell Struct. Funct. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Age-related and dexamethasone-induced changes in cathepsins E and D in rat thymic and splenic cells. Nishishita, K., Sakai, H., Sakai, E., Kato, Y., Yamamoto, K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
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