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Gene Review

Flg  -  filaggrin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW107830, Filaggrin, fillagrin, ft, profilaggrin
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Disease relevance of Flg


High impact information on Flg

  • Further, these antibodies demonstrated specific binding to citrullinated filaggrin in rat esophagus by indirect immunofluorescence and citrullinated fibrinogen by Western blot [5].
  • Loss of proteolytically processed filaggrin caused by epidermal deletion of Matriptase/MT-SP1 [6].
  • Profilaggrin is a large epidermal polyprotein that is proteolytically processed during keratinocyte differentiation to release multiple filaggrin monomer units as well as a calcium-binding regulatory NH2-terminal filaggrin S-100 protein [6].
  • The basal cells of affected mice ceased to proliferate, and expressed the profilaggrin and loricrin genes which are normally transcribed only in the latest stages of epidermal differentiation [7].
  • However, only a small fraction of the cells express the markers K1, K10, CE, or filaggrin in the higher Ca2+ medium [8].

Biological context of Flg


Anatomical context of Flg


Associations of Flg with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Flg

  • We found that loricrin mRNA and protein were expressed by E16, following the expression of keratins K1 and K10 and preceding the expression of profilaggrin [22].
  • In this study we examined the expression of hornerin compared with that of profilaggrin in various mouse tissues [16].
  • Furthermore, the expression of both mRNA and protein for the calcium inducible keratinocyte differentiation markers, filaggrin and loricrin, were down-regulated in the epidermis of Casr(-/-) mice, whereas the number of proliferating cells were increased even though the calcium gradient within the epidermis was enhanced [23].
  • The human hornerin gene was mapped between trichohyalin and filaggrin on chromosome 1q21.3, the region being completely syntenic with the counterpart of the mouse [24].
  • Minor but significant differences are: in forestomach, striated material resembling lamellar granules is intercalated between the cornified squames; and in forestomach granular layer cells, loricrin-containing L-granules are more abundant, and filaggrin-containing F-granules less abundant than in epidermis [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flg


  1. Epidermal-specific defect of GPI anchor in Pig-a null mice results in Harlequin ichthyosis-like features. Hara-Chikuma, M., Takeda, J., Tarutani, M., Uchida, Y., Holleran, W.M., Endo, Y., Elias, P.M., Inoue, S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunoelectron microscopy links molecules and morphology in the studies of keratinization. Ishida-Yamamoto, A., Takahashi, H., Iizuka, H. European journal of dermatology : EJD. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Alteration in the distribution of the epidermal protein filaggrin during two-stage chemical carcinogenesis in the SENCAR mouse skin. Mamrack, M.D., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Reiners, J.J., Slaga, T.J. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. The effects of deimination of myelin basic protein on structures formed by its interaction with phosphoinositide-containing lipid monolayers. Ishiyama, N., Bates, I.R., Hill, C.M., Wood, D.D., Matharu, P., Viner, N.J., Moscarello, M.A., Harauz, G. J. Struct. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Antibodies against citrullinated proteins enhance tissue injury in experimental autoimmune arthritis. Kuhn, K.A., Kulik, L., Tomooka, B., Braschler, K.J., Arend, W.P., Robinson, W.H., Holers, V.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Loss of proteolytically processed filaggrin caused by epidermal deletion of Matriptase/MT-SP1. List, K., Szabo, R., Wertz, P.W., Segre, J., Haudenschild, C.C., Kim, S.Y., Bugge, T.H. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of epidermal differentiation by a Distal-less homeodomain gene. Morasso, M.I., Markova, N.G., Sargent, T.D. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of murine epidermal differentiation markers is tightly regulated by restricted extracellular calcium concentrations in vitro. Yuspa, S.H., Kilkenny, A.E., Steinert, P.M., Roop, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of the mouse loricrin gene: linkage with profilaggrin and the flaky tail and soft coat mutant loci on chromosome 3. Rothnagel, J.A., Longley, M.A., Bundman, D.S., Naylor, S.L., Lalley, P.A., Jenkins, N.A., Gilbert, D.J., Copeland, N.G., Roop, D.R. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Coordinate changes in gene expression which mark the spinous to granular cell transition in epidermis are regulated by protein kinase C. Dlugosz, A.A., Yuspa, S.H. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of profilaggrin endoproteinase 1. A regulated cytoplasmic endoproteinase of epidermis. Resing, K.A., Thulin, C., Whiting, K., al-Alawi, N., Mostad, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The gene for mouse epidermal filaggrin precursor. Its partial characterization, expression, and sequence of a repeating filaggrin unit. Rothnagel, J.A., Mehrel, T., Idler, W.W., Roop, D.R., Steinert, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The structure of the gene for mouse filaggrin and a comparison of the repeating units. Rothnagel, J.A., Steinert, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of terminal differentiation proteins defines stages of mouse mammary gland development. Mikaelian, I., Hovick, M., Silva, K.A., Burzenski, L.M., Shultz, L.D., Ackert-Bicknell, C.L., Cox, G.A., Sundberg, J.P. Vet. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Biosynthetic pathways of filaggrin and loricrin--two major proteins expressed by terminally differentiated epidermal keratinocytes. Steven, A.C., Bisher, M.E., Roop, D.R., Steinert, P.M. J. Struct. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of hornerin in stratified squamous epithelium in the mouse: a comparative analysis with profilaggrin. Makino, T., Takaishi, M., Toyoda, M., Morohashi, M., Huh, N.H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation stimulates keratinocyte differentiation. Mao-Qiang, M., Fowler, A.J., Schmuth, M., Lau, P., Chang, S., Brown, B.E., Moser, A.H., Michalik, L., Desvergne, B., Wahli, W., Li, M., Metzger, D., Chambon, P.H., Elias, P.M., Feingold, K.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Cholesterol sulfate activates multiple protein kinase C isoenzymes and induces granular cell differentiation in cultured murine keratinocytes. Denning, M.F., Kazanietz, M.G., Blumberg, P.M., Yuspa, S.H. Cell Growth Differ. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Application of cantharidin or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on mouse epidermis induces a cell population shift that causes altered keratin distribution. Heyden, A., Lützow-Holm, C., Clausen, O.P., Thrane, E.V., Brandtzaeg, P., Roop, D.R., Yuspa, S.H., Huitfeldt, H.S. Differentiation (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of two intermediates during processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin in neonatal mouse epidermis. Resing, K.A., Walsh, K.A., Dale, B.A. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Normal keratinocytes suppress early stages of neoplastic progression in stratified epithelium. Javaherian, A., Vaccariello, M., Fusenig, N.E., Garlick, J.A. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Loricrin expression is coordinated with other epidermal proteins and the appearance of lipid lamellar granules in development. Bickenbach, J.R., Greer, J.M., Bundman, D.S., Rothnagel, J.A., Roop, D.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Epidermal expression of the full-length extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is required for normal keratinocyte differentiation. Komuves, L., Oda, Y., Tu, C.L., Chang, W.H., Ho-Pao, C.L., Mauro, T., Bikle, D.D. J. Cell. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of human hornerin and its expression in regenerating and psoriatic skin. Takaishi, M., Makino, T., Morohashi, M., Huh, N.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential expression and cell envelope incorporation of small proline-rich protein 1 in different cornified epithelia. Jarnik, M., Kartasova, T., Steinert, P.M., Lichti, U., Steven, A.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Loss of normal profilaggrin and filaggrin in flaky tail (ft/ft) mice: an animal model for the filaggrin-deficient skin disease ichthyosis vulgaris. Presland, R.B., Boggess, D., Lewis, S.P., Hull, C., Fleckman, P., Sundberg, J.P. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Genomic organization and mapping of the human and mouse neuronal beta2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes. Lueders, K.K., Elliott, R.W., Marenholz, I., Mischke, D., DuPree, M., Hamer, D. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Hornerin, a novel profilaggrin-like protein and differentiation-specific marker isolated from mouse skin. Makino, T., Takaishi, M., Morohashi, M., Huh, N.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
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