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Gene Review

Polb  -  polymerase (DNA directed), beta

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: DNA polymerase beta
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Disease relevance of Polb


High impact information on Polb


Chemical compound and disease context of Polb


Biological context of Polb


Anatomical context of Polb

  • The sequence Gly-Asp-Met-Asp, spanning positions 189-192 of rat DNA polymerase beta, is similar to the sequence motif Gly-Asp-Thr-Asp that is highly conserved in a number of replicative DNA polymerases from eukaryotic cells, viruses, and phages [16].
  • Hormonal regulation of DNA polymerase beta activity and expression in rat adrenal glands and testes [15].
  • Our results also suggest that the sites of nuclear DNA polymerase beta-driven DNA synthesis are uniquely sequestered within the characteristic peripheral heterochromatin shell and associated nuclear envelope structure, where they may potentially participate in DNA repair and/or replicative functions [8].
  • An immunological procedure that uses antiserum against homogeneous calf thymus DNA polymerase beta to detect immunoreactive peptides on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates a high degree of conservation of protein sequence and molecular weight for this enzyme, from parastic protozoans to man [17].
  • Using bovine testis crude nuclear extract, we have shown that G:U is repaired efficiently in vitro, and DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) is responsible for the single nucleotide gap-filling synthesis (Singhal, R. K., Prasad, R., and Wilson, S. H.(1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 949-957) [18].

Associations of Polb with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Polb


Other interactions of Polb

  • DNA polymerase beta mRNA expression in rat testes was decreased by hypophysectomy and recovered with administration of gonadotropic hormone, suggesting that this enzyme is controlled at the mRNA level by this pituitary hormone [15].
  • For this to happen, the conditions required are the presence of 5'-PO4 on the downstream primer and supplementation of aging neuronal extracts with DNA-ligase in addition to recombinant DNA polymerase beta [24].
  • These results indicate that in young rats activities of epididymal DNA polymerase alpha and gamma and DNA topoisomerase I are partially, and that of DNA polymerase beta wholly, dependent on androgens and may provide a means of investigating the regulation of epididymal cell proliferation [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Polb


  1. Structure of rat DNA polymerase beta revealed by partial amino acid sequencing and cDNA cloning. Zmudzka, B.Z., SenGupta, D., Matsukage, A., Cobianchi, F., Kumar, P., Wilson, S.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of active rat DNA polymerase beta in Escherichia coli. Date, T., Yamaguchi, M., Hirose, F., Nishimoto, Y., Tanihara, K., Matsukage, A. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Interaction of mammalian deoxyribonuclease V, a double strand 3' to 5' and 5' to 3' exonuclease, with deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase-beta from the Novikoff hepatoma. Mosbaugh, D.W., Meyer, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure-based combinatorial protein engineering (SCOPE). O'Maille, P.E., Bakhtina, M., Tsai, M.D. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Repair of depurinated DNA with enzymes from rat liver chromatin. Goffin, C., Verly, W.G. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. 2.3 A crystal structure of the catalytic domain of DNA polymerase beta. Davies, J.F., Almassy, R.J., Hostomska, Z., Ferre, R.A., Hostomsky, Z. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Excision of deoxyribose phosphate residues by DNA polymerase beta during DNA repair. Matsumoto, Y., Kim, K. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Spatial distribution of DNA loop attachment and replicational sites in the nuclear matrix. Smith, H.C., Puvion, E., Buchholtz, L.A., Berezney, R. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. DNA polymerase delta is required for base excision repair of DNA methylation damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Blank, A., Kim, B., Loeb, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection and characterization of mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants by functional complementation in Escherichia coli. Sweasy, J.B., Loeb, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Misincorporation of dAMP opposite 2-hydroxyadenine, an oxidative form of adenine. Kamiya, H., Ueda, T., Ohgi, T., Matsukage, A., Kasai, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of busulphan treatment and elevated temperature on the expression of the beta-pol gene in rat testis. Nowak, R., Siedlecki, J.A. Mol. Biol. Rep. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. The D246V mutant of DNA polymerase beta misincorporates nucleotides: evidence for a role for the flexible loop in DNA positioning within the active site. Dalal, S., Kosa, J.L., Sweasy, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Homology between mammalian DNA polymerase beta and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Matsukage, A., Nishikawa, K., Ooi, T., Seto, Y., Yamaguchi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Hormonal regulation of DNA polymerase beta activity and expression in rat adrenal glands and testes. Kotake, M., Nakai, A., Nagasaka, A., Itoh, M., Hidaka, H., Yoshida, S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Aspartic acid residues at positions 190 and 192 of rat DNA polymerase beta are involved in primer binding. Date, T., Yamamoto, S., Tanihara, K., Nishimoto, Y., Matsukage, A. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolutionary conservation of DNA polymerase beta structure. Chang, L.M., Plevani, P., Bollum, F.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Specific interaction of DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase I in a multiprotein base excision repair complex from bovine testis. Prasad, R., Singhal, R.K., Srivastava, D.K., Molina, J.T., Tomkinson, A.E., Wilson, S.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Backbone dynamics and refined solution structure of the N-terminal domain of DNA polymerase beta. Correlation with DNA binding and dRP lyase activity. Maciejewski, M.W., Liu, D., Prasad, R., Wilson, S.H., Mullen, G.P. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural relationship of lithocholic acid derivatives binding to the N-terminal 8-kDa domain of DNA polymerase beta. Mizushina, Y., Kasai, N., Miura, K., Hanashima, S., Takemura, M., Yoshida, H., Sugawara, F., Sakaguchi, K. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Erratic expression of DNA polymerases by beta-amyloid causes neuronal death. Copani, A., Sortino, M.A., Caricasole, A., Chiechio, S., Chisari, M., Battaglia, G., Giuffrida-Stella, A.M., Vancheri, C., Nicoletti, F. FASEB J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Selective response of DNA polymerase beta to bleomycin-induced breaks in DNA. Coetzee, M.L., Chou, R., Ove, P. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel single-stranded DNA-binding protein from the Novikoff hepatoma which stimulates DNA polymerase beta. Purification and general characterization. Koerner, T.J., Meyer, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Reduced DNA gap repair in aging rat neuronal extracts and its restoration by DNA polymerase beta and DNA-ligase. Krishna, T.H., Mahipal, S., Sudhakar, A., Sugimoto, H., Kalluri, R., Rao, K.S. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Androgenic regulation of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis in epididymis of young rats. Imanishi, O., Fujisawa, M., Matsumoto, O., Kamidono, S. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant rat DNA polymerase beta: involvement of arginine-183 in primer recognition. Date, T., Yamamoto, S., Tanihara, K., Nishimoto, Y., Liu, N., Matsukage, A. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Transition between different binding modes in rat DNA polymerase beta-ssDNA complexes. Jezewska, M.J., Rajendran, S., Bujalowski, W. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Crystallization of 31 kDa C-terminal fragment of rat DNA polymerase beta. Shirakihara, Y., Matsukage, A., Nishimoto, Y., Date, T. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. DNA damage and repair in light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Gordon, W.C., Casey, D.M., Lukiw, W.J., Bazan, N.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
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