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Gene Review

Plk1  -  polo-like kinase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: PLK-1, Plk, Polo-like kinase 1, STPK13, Serine/threonine-protein kinase 13, ...
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Disease relevance of Plk1

  • These results establish LFM-A13 as a small molecule inhibitor of Plk with in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer [1].
  • The largest open reading frame of the Plk1 cDNA encodes a protein of 68,254 daltons, and a protein of this size is detected by immunoblotting of HeLa cell extracts with monoclonal antibodies raised against the C-terminal part of Plk1 expressed in Escherichia coli [2].
  • Within the precommitment period of murine erythroleukemia cell terminal differentiation, most of the poly(A) tail is lost from the STPK13 mRNA, but the body of the mRNA remains unchanged in abundance; this poly(A) loss does not occur in mutant erythroleukemia cells that fail to commit to terminal differentiation [3].
  • Novel oncolytic adenovirus selectively targets tumor-associated polo-like kinase 1 and tumor cell viability [4].
  • METHODS: HeLa S3 cervical and A549 lung cancer cell lines were transfected with plasmids containing U6 promoter-driven shRNAs against human PLK1 or control (parental or scrambled) plasmids [5].

High impact information on Plk1

  • We demonstrate that FKH-TFs regulate expression of mitotic genes such as cyclin B and polo-like kinase (Plk) [6].
  • These results indicate that Plk and PKA regulate mitosis progression by controlling APC activity [7].
  • PKA is superior to Plk in its regulation of APC, and Plk activity peaks whereas PKA activity is falling at metaphase [7].
  • INCENP depletion disrupts Plk1 localization specifically at the kinetochore [8].
  • The human Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and its functional homologues that are present in other eukaryotes have multiple, crucial roles in meiotic and mitotic cell division [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Plk1

  • Moreover, selective targeting of plk1 or chk1 in tumor xenografts of mice by oncolytic adenovirus mutants demonstrated potent anti-tumoral efficacy in the presence of low dose cisplatin [10].

Biological context of Plk1

  • Plk1-depleted cells enter mitosis after a short delay, accumulate in a preanaphase state, and subsequently often die by apoptosis [11].
  • Phosphorylation of BR-N1 with Plk1 recapitulated the electrophoretic mobility change as seen in BR-N1 isolated from M phase cells [12].
  • In Plk1-depleted cells spindles may not be able to create enough tension across sister kinetochores to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and to silence the spindle checkpoint [11].
  • RESULTS: We have analyzed Plk1 functions in synchronized mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi) [11].
  • Due to close sequence homology to human Slk and Xenopus laevis xPlkk1, two polo-like kinase kinases, we investigated whether Stk10 might also play a role as a Plk1 activator [13].

Anatomical context of Plk1

  • Spindles in Plk1-depleted cells lack focused poles and are not associated with centrosomes [11].
  • We have confirmed the specific pattern of immuno-localisation seen in fixed preparations by observing the distribution of Plk1 tagged with green fluorescent protein in living oocytes [14].
  • Plk1 disappeared at the spindle region when microtubule formation was inhibited by colchicine or staurosporine, while it was concentrated as several dots in the cytoplasm after taxol treatment [15].
  • Cell cycle dependent expression of Plk1 in synchronized porcine fetal fibroblasts [16].
  • To define the role of Plk1 in germ cell development, we have examined its expression in murine gonads by in situ hybridization [17].

Associations of Plk1 with chemical compounds

  • Experiments with monopolar spindles that are induced by the kinesin inhibitor Monastrol indicate that Plk1 is required for the assembly of spindles that are able to generate poleward pulling forces [11].
  • Phosphorylated hamartin interacts with Plk1 independent of tuberin with all three proteins present in a complex [18].
  • Among 41 phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides tested, the 20-mer JWG2000 strongly inhibited expression of Plk1 in cultured A549 cells, leading to loss of cell viability, and exhibited anti-tumor activity in nude mice A549 xenograft [19].
  • After administration of Dox knockdown of Plk1 expression was observed correlating to a significant inhibition of tumor growth [20].
  • For this purpose inducible RNAi vectors containing tetracycline (Tet)-responsive derivatives of the H1 promoter for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to target human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), which is overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human tumors [20].

Other interactions of Plk1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plk1


  1. Anti-breast cancer activity of LFM-A13, a potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase (PLK). Uckun, F.M., Dibirdik, I., Qazi, S., Vassilev, A., Ma, H., Mao, C., Benyumov, A., Emami, K.H. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell cycle analysis and chromosomal localization of human Plk1, a putative homologue of the mitotic kinases Drosophila polo and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc5. Golsteyn, R.M., Schultz, S.J., Bartek, J., Ziemiecki, A., Ried, T., Nigg, E.A. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell cycle- and terminal differentiation-associated regulation of the mouse mRNA encoding a conserved mitotic protein kinase. Lake, R.J., Jelinek, W.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel oncolytic adenovirus selectively targets tumor-associated polo-like kinase 1 and tumor cell viability. Zhou, J., Gao, Q., Chen, G., Huang, X., Lu, Y., Li, K., Xie, D., Zhuang, L., Deng, J., Ma, D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cancer inhibition in nude mice after systemic application of U6 promoter-driven short hairpin RNAs against PLK1. Spänkuch, B., Matthess, Y., Knecht, R., Zimmer, B., Kaufmann, M., Strebhardt, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Forkhead transcription factors contribute to execution of the mitotic programme in mammals. Alvarez, B., Martínez-A, C., Burgering, B.M., Carrera, A.C. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. PKA and MPF-activated polo-like kinase regulate anaphase-promoting complex activity and mitosis progression. Kotani, S., Tugendreich, S., Fujii, M., Jorgensen, P.M., Watanabe, N., Hoog, C., Hieter, P., Todokoro, K. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Complex formation of Plk1 and INCENP required for metaphase-anaphase transition. Goto, H., Kiyono, T., Tomono, Y., Kawajiri, A., Urano, T., Furukawa, K., Nigg, E.A., Inagaki, M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The Polo kinase Plk4 functions in centriole duplication. Habedanck, R., Stierhof, Y.D., Wilkinson, C.J., Nigg, E.A. Nat. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Influence of chk1 and plk1 silencing on radiation- or cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human malignant cells. Gao, Q., Huang, X., Tang, D., Cao, Y., Chen, G., Lu, Y., Zhuang, L., Wang, S., Xu, G., Zhou, J., Ma, D. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Roles of polo-like kinase 1 in the assembly of functional mitotic spindles. Sumara, I., Giménez-Abián, J.F., Gerlich, D., Hirota, T., Kraft, C., de la Torre, C., Ellenberg, J., Peters, J.M. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. M phase-specific phosphorylation of BRCA2 by Polo-like kinase 1 correlates with the dissociation of the BRCA2-P/CAF complex. Lin, H.R., Ting, N.S., Qin, J., Lee, W.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Stk10, a new member of the polo-like kinase kinase family highly expressed in hematopoietic tissue. Walter, S.A., Cutler, R.E., Martinez, R., Gishizky, M., Hill, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Mouse polo-like kinase 1 associates with the acentriolar spindle poles, meiotic chromosomes and spindle midzone during oocyte maturation. Wianny, F., Tavares, A., Evans, M.J., Glover, D.M., Zernicka-Goetz, M. Chromosoma (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Polo-like kinase-1 is a pivotal regulator of microtubule assembly during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic mitosis. Tong, C., Fan, H.Y., Lian, L., Li, S.W., Chen, D.Y., Schatten, H., Sun, Q.Y. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell cycle dependent expression of Plk1 in synchronized porcine fetal fibroblasts. Anger, M., Kues, W.A., Klima, J., Mielenz, M., Kubelka, M., Motlik, J., Esner, M., Dvorak, P., Carnwath, J.W., Niemann, H. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Murine polo like kinase 1 gene is expressed in meiotic testicular germ cells and oocytes. Matsubara, N., Yanagisawa, M., Nishimune, Y., Obinata, M., Matsui, Y. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Hamartin, the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene product, interacts with polo-like kinase 1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Astrinidis, A., Senapedis, W., Henske, E.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Polo-like kinase1, a new target for antisense tumor therapy. Elez, R., Piiper, A., Giannini, C.D., Brendel, M., Zeuzem, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Tumor inhibition by genomically integrated inducible RNAi-cassettes. Kappel, S., Matthess, Y., Zimmer, B., Kaufmann, M., Strebhardt, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The mouse Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor is essential for hepatoblast mitosis and development of intrahepatic bile ducts and vessels during liver morphogenesis. Krupczak-Hollis, K., Wang, X., Kalinichenko, V.V., Gusarova, G.A., Wang, I.C., Dennewitz, M.B., Yoder, H.M., Kiyokawa, H., Kaestner, K.H., Costa, R.H. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Ubiquitination and proteasome mediated degradation of polo-like kinase. Ferris, D.K., Maloid, S.C., Li, C.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Mouse pre-replicative complex proteins colocalise and interact with the centrosome. Stuermer, A., Hoehn, K., Faul, T., Auth, T., Brand, N., Kneissl, M., P??tter, V., Grummt, F. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Small interfering RNA-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 depletion preferentially reduces the survival of p53-defective, oncogenic transformed cells and inhibits tumor growth in animals. Guan, R., Tapang, P., Leverson, J.D., Albert, D., Giranda, V.L., Luo, Y. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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