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Gene Review

FAP  -  fibroblast activation protein, alpha

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 170 kDa melanoma membrane-bound gelatinase, DPPIV, Dipeptidyl peptidase FAP, FAPA, FAPalpha, ...
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Disease relevance of FAP


High impact information on FAP


Chemical compound and disease context of FAP


Biological context of FAP


Anatomical context of FAP


Associations of FAP with chemical compounds

  • Like DPPIV, the gelatinase activity of seprase was completely blocked by serine-protease inhibitors, including diisopropyl fluorophosphate [3].
  • In this paper, we discuss the molecular interaction mechanism of diprotin A with hDPPIV based on the X-ray crystal structure [17].
  • These substrate preferences allowed design of peptidyl-chloromethyl ketones that inhibited FAP, but not the related protease, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [18].
  • FAP required substrates with Pro at P(1) and Gly or d-amino acids at P(2) and preferred small, uncharged amino acids at P(3), but tolerated most amino acids at P(4), P(1)(') and P(2)(') [18].
  • Dipeptide proline diphenyl phosphonates are potent, irreversible inhibitors of seprase (FAPalpha) [19].

Enzymatic interactions of FAP

  • Known DPPIV dipeptides are cleaved by FAPalpha with an approximately 100-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency compared with DPPIV [2].

Regulatory relationships of FAP


Other interactions of FAP

  • Thus, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to generate a 2.4-kilobase cDNA from LOX mRNA with FAPalpha primers [3].
  • Here we describe DPP8, a novel human postproline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase that is homologous to DPPIV and FAP [4].
  • Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro inhibitors of DPP4, FAP, and DPP7 [20].
  • FAP was colocalized with collagen fibers, fibronectin, and collagen type I in human liver [14].
  • The functional interactions of DPIV and FAP with extracellular matrix confer roles for these proteins in cancer biology [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FAP


  1. Molecular cloning of fibroblast activation protein alpha, a member of the serine protease family selectively expressed in stromal fibroblasts of epithelial cancers. Scanlan, M.J., Raj, B.K., Calvo, B., Garin-Chesa, P., Sanz-Moncasi, M.P., Healey, J.H., Old, L.J., Rettig, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Structural and kinetic analysis of the substrate specificity of human fibroblast activation protein alpha. Aertgeerts, K., Levin, I., Shi, L., Snell, G.P., Jennings, A., Prasad, G.S., Zhang, Y., Kraus, M.L., Salakian, S., Sridhar, V., Wijnands, R., Tennant, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of the 170-kDa melanoma membrane-bound gelatinase (seprase) as a serine integral membrane protease. Piñeiro-Sánchez, M.L., Goldstein, L.A., Dodt, J., Howard, L., Yeh, Y., Tran, H., Argraves, W.S., Chen, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning, expression and chromosomal localization of a novel human dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV homolog, DPP8. Abbott, C.A., Yu, D.M., Woollatt, E., Sutherland, G.R., McCaughan, G.W., Gorrell, M.D. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. A role for dipeptidyl peptidase IV in suppressing the malignant phenotype of melanocytic cells. Wesley, U.V., Albino, A.P., Tiwari, S., Houghton, A.N. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeting tumor-associated fibroblasts improves cancer chemotherapy by increasing intratumoral drug uptake. Loeffler, M., Krüger, J.A., Niethammer, A.G., Reisfeld, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Antiplasmin-cleaving enzyme is a soluble form of fibroblast activation protein. Lee, K.N., Jackson, K.W., Christiansen, V.J., Lee, C.S., Chun, J.G., McKee, P.A. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of seprase: a serine integral membrane protease from human melanoma. Goldstein, L.A., Ghersi, G., Piñeiro-Sánchez, M.L., Salamone, M., Yeh, Y., Flessate, D., Chen, W.T. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Up-regulation of CYP26A1 in adenomatous polyposis coli-deficient vertebrates via a WNT-dependent mechanism: implications for intestinal cell differentiation and colon tumor development. Shelton, D.N., Sandoval, I.T., Eisinger, A., Chidester, S., Ratnayake, A., Ireland, C.M., Jones, D.A. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Impact of dietary amino acids and polyamines on intestinal carcinogenesis and chemoprevention in mouse models. Gerner, E.W. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Adenosine downregulates DPPIV on HT-29 colon cancer cells by stimulating protein tyrosine phosphatase(s) and reducing ERK1/2 activity via a novel pathway. Tan, E.Y., Richard, C.L., Zhang, H., Hoskin, D.W., Blay, J. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and characterization of dipeptidyl peptidase 10, a new member of an emerging subgroup of serine proteases. Qi, S.Y., Riviere, P.J., Trojnar, J., Junien, J.L., Akinsanya, K.O. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Regional localization of DPP4 (alias CD26 and ADCP2) to chromosome 2q24. Darmoul, D., Fox, M., Harvey, C., Jeggo, P., Gum, J.R., Kim, Y.S., Swallow, D.M. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Fibroblast activation protein increases apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration by the LX-2 human stellate cell line. Wang, X.M., Yu, D.M., McCaughan, G.W., Gorrell, M.D. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The protease complex consisting of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and seprase plays a role in the migration and invasion of human endothelial cells in collagenous matrices. Ghersi, G., Zhao, Q., Salamone, M., Yeh, Y., Zucker, S., Chen, W.T. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of fibroblast migration on collagenous matrix by a cell surface peptidase complex. Ghersi, G., Dong, H., Goldstein, L.A., Yeh, Y., Hakkinen, L., Larjava, H.S., Chen, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The crystal structure of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) complex with diprotin A. Hiramatsu, H., Yamamoto, A., Kyono, K., Higashiyama, Y., Fukushima, C., Shima, H., Sugiyama, S., Inaka, K., Shimizu, R. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Peptide substrate profiling defines fibroblast activation protein as an endopeptidase of strict Gly(2)-Pro(1)-cleaving specificity. Edosada, C.Y., Quan, C., Tran, T., Pham, V., Wiesmann, C., Fairbrother, W., Wolf, B.B. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Dipeptide proline diphenyl phosphonates are potent, irreversible inhibitors of seprase (FAPalpha). Gilmore, B.F., Lynas, J.F., Scott, C.J., McGoohan, C., Martin, L., Walker, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-alkyl Gly-boro-Pro inhibitors of DPP4, FAP, and DPP7. Hu, Y., Ma, L., Wu, M., Wong, M.S., Li, B., Corral, S., Yu, Z., Nomanbhoy, T., Alemayehu, S., Fuller, S.R., Rosenblum, J.S., Rozenkrants, N., Minimo, L.C., Ripka, W.C., Szardenings, A.K., Kozarich, J.W., Shreder, K.R. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV and related enzymes in cell biology and liver disorders. Gorrell, M.D. Clin. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Fibroblast activation protein: purification, epitope mapping and induction by growth factors. Rettig, W.J., Su, S.L., Fortunato, S.R., Scanlan, M.J., Raj, B.K., Garin-Chesa, P., Healey, J.H., Old, L.J. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Progressive wild-type transthyretin deposition after liver transplantation preferentially occurs onto myocardium in FAP patients. Yazaki, M., Mitsuhashi, S., Tokuda, T., Kametani, F., Takei, Y.I., Koyama, J., Kawamorita, A., Kanno, H., Ikeda, S.I. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (2007) [Pubmed]
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