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Gene Review

Ace  -  Acetylcholine esterase

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: ACE, AChE, AcChE, Acetylcholinesterase, AchE, ...
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Disease relevance of Ace


Psychiatry related information on Ace


High impact information on Ace


Biological context of Ace


Anatomical context of Ace


Associations of Ace with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ace

  • AChE transport is constitutive while that of ChAT occurs in a brief pulse during third instar larva stage [11].

Other interactions of Ace

  • The results obtained in these studies are discussed with respect to data presented on the adult distribution of the cholinergic markers' AChE activity and ChAT immunoreactivity [15].
  • Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE [21].
  • The walk includes the DNA for the rosy and Ace loci, which code for xanthine dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase, respectively [22].
  • Chromosomal walking and jumping to isolate DNA from the Ace and rosy loci and the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster [22].
  • The cells in these cultures had the properties of neurons of the Drosophila CNS: They gave rise to ganglion-like clusters from which neurites extended on the culture substrate, and they expressed the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, and the cell surface antigens recognized by antisera raised against horseradish peroxidase [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ace


  1. Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of an acetylcholinesterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Anthony, N., Rocheleau, T., Mocelin, G., Lee, H.J., ffrench-Constant, R. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Drosophila acetylcholinesterase: demonstration of a glycoinositol phospholipid anchor and an endogenous proteolytic cleavage. Haas, R., Marshall, T.L., Rosenberry, T.L. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. An amino acid substitution attributable to insecticide-insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase in a Japanese encephalitis vector mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Nabeshima, T., Mori, A., Kozaki, T., Iwata, Y., Hidoh, O., Harada, S., Kasai, S., Severson, D.W., Kono, Y., Tomita, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Do metals inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE)? Implementation of assay conditions for the use of AChE activity as a biomarker of metal toxicity. Frasco, M.F., Fournier, D., Carvalho, F., Guilhermino, L. Biomarkers (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Kinetic and structural studies on the interaction of cholinesterases with the anti-Alzheimer drug rivastigmine. Bar-On, P., Millard, C.B., Harel, M., Dvir, H., Enz, A., Sussman, J.L., Silman, I. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Acetylcholinesterase mutants in Drosophila and their effects on the structure and function of the central nervous system. Greenspan, R.J., Finn, J.A., Hall, J.C. J. Comp. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. RH 5849, a nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist: effects on a Drosophila cell line. Wing, K.D. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of acetylcholinesterase activity by beta-ecdysone in a Drosophila cell line. Cherbas, P., Cherbas, L., Williams, C.M. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Conservation of neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila to vertebrate central nervous systems. Bossy, B., Ballivet, M., Spierer, P. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. cDNA sequences of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase: primary structure of the precursor of a catalytic subunit; existence of multiple 5'-untranslated regions. Sikorav, J.L., Krejci, E., Massoulié, J. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Kinesin-2 differentially regulates the anterograde axonal transports of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in Drosophila. Baqri, R., Charan, R., Schimmelpfeng, K., Chavan, S., Ray, K. J. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro neuronal differentiation of Drosophila embryo cells. Salvaterra, P.M., Bournias-Vardiabasis, N., Nair, T., Hou, G., Lieu, C. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Evolutionary origin of cholinergic macromolecules and thyroglobulin. Mori, N., Itoh, N., Salvaterra, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Post-translational modifications of Drosophila acetylcholinesterase. In vitro mutagenesis and expression in Xenopus oocytes. Mutero, A., Fournier, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. On the role of normal acetylcholine metabolism in the formation and maintenance of the Drosophila nervous system. Chase, B.A., Kankel, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the acetylcholinesterase transcript in the chordotonal neurons of Drosophila embryos. Zádor, E. Biochem. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Exploration of the Drosophila acetylcholinesterase substrate activation site using a reversible inhibitor (Triton X-100) and mutated enzymes. Marcel, V., Estrada-Mondaca, S., Magné, F., Stojan, J., Klaébé, A., Fournier, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of Drosophila acetylcholinesterases with D-tubocurarine: an explanation of the activation by an inhibitor. Golicnik, M., Fournier, D., Stojan, J. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Analysis of a mosquito acetylcholinesterase gene promoter. Liu, H.T., Stilwell, G., Anthony, N., Rocheleau, T., ffrench-Constant, R.H. Insect Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of acetylcholinesterase gene(s) in the human brain: molecular cloning evidence for cross-homologous sequences. Zevin-Sonkin, D., Avni, A., Zisling, R., Koch, R., Soreq, H. J. Physiol. (Paris) (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? ffrench-Constant, R.H., Pittendrigh, B., Vaughan, A., Anthony, N. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Chromosomal walking and jumping to isolate DNA from the Ace and rosy loci and the bithorax complex in Drosophila melanogaster. Bender, W., Spierer, P., Hogness, D.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Differentiation of primary embryonic neuroblasts in purified neural cell cultures from Drosophila. Furst, A., Mahowald, A.P. Dev. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Acetylcholinesterase from Drosophila melanogaster. Identification of two subunits encoded by the same gene. Fournier, D., Bride, J.M., Karch, F., Bergé, J.B. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Acetylcholinesterase engineering for detection of insecticide residues. Boublik, Y., Saint-Aguet, P., Lougarre, A., Arnaud, M., Villatte, F., Estrada-Mondaca, S., Fournier, D. Protein Eng. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Resistance-associated point mutations in insecticide-insensitive acetylcholinesterase. Mutero, A., Pralavorio, M., Bride, J.M., Fournier, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Construction and characterization of secreted and chimeric transmembrane forms of Drosophila acetylcholinesterase: a large truncation of the C-terminal signal peptide does not eliminate glycoinositol phospholipid anchoring. Incardona, J.P., Rosenberry, T.L. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Replacement of the glycoinositol phospholipid anchor of Drosophila acetylcholinesterase with a transmembrane domain does not alter sorting in neurons and epithelia but results in behavioral defects. Incardona, J.P., Rosenberry, T.L. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
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