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Gene Review

ACHE  -  acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of ACHE


Psychiatry related information on ACHE

  • Considering that we have previously shown that AChE promotes the assembly of beta-amyloid peptide into neurotoxic amyloid fibrils, it is conceivable that the neurotoxicity of AChE shown here may play a role in the neuronal degeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease [2].
  • Intravenous administration of FBS AChE produced a minimal behavioral effect on the serial probe recognition task, a sensitive test of cognitive function and short-term memory [5].

High impact information on ACHE

  • This effect is selective, in that levels of other enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and acetylcholinesterase) are not increased [6].
  • Since acetylcholinesterase was neither induced in high density nor in PM-treated low density cultures, an induction of TH as a result of a general increase in protein synthesis was excluded [7].
  • On the other hand, the distribution of mAb staining in the optic tectum does not closely parallel that of either acetylcholinesterase staining or of 125I-labeled alpha-bungarotoxin binding; no toxin binding has been observed autoradiographically in the SpL, but the nucleus does contain moderately dense acetylcholinesterase staining [8].
  • It is clear, however, that the distribution of the putative nAcChoRs, alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites, and acetylcholinesterase staining in the avian midbrain are quite different, although they do overlap to some degree in the deeper layers of the optic tectum [8].
  • Acetylcholinesterase of human erythrocytes and neuromuscular junctions: homologies revealed by monoclonal antibodies [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of ACHE


Biological context of ACHE

  • However, the cloned BoAChE sequence differs from the published amino acid sequence of AChE isolated from fetal bovine serum (FBS) by: (1) 13 amino acids, 12 of which are conserved between BoAChE and human AChE, and (2) the presence of four rather than five potential N-glycosylation sites [15].
  • This difference in behaviour, together with previous studies on the effect of post-translation modification on human AChE clearance [Kronman, Velan, Marcus, Ordentlich, Reuveny and Shafferman (1995) Biochem. J. 311, 959-967] suggests that cell-dependent glycosylation plays a key role in AChE circulatory residence [15].
  • Five exons coding for the AChE T-subunit and the alternative H-subunit were identified and their organization suggests high conservation of structure in mammalian AChE genes [15].
  • Since neither acetylcholinesterase nor lactate dehydrogenase specific activities were increased by high cell density, it can be concluded that the contact-mediated induction of TH is rather specific, and not the result of a general process of enzyme induction [16].
  • Brain G4 AChE involves two catalytic subunits linked by a direct intersubunit disulfide bond while the other two are disulfide-linked to a membrane-binding 20-kDa noncatalytic subunit [17].

Anatomical context of ACHE

  • All of these antibodies crossreacted with human and monkey neuromuscular junctions; immunocytochemical staining patterns corresponded to the distribution of junctional acetylcholinesterase [9].
  • We have identified six molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AcChoE: acetylcholine hydrolase, EC in extracts from bovine superior cervical ganglia [18].
  • Moreover, during incubation, MELC actively released large amounts of AChE into the medium, like it occurs in murine thrombocytes [1].
  • Enzyme levels of uninduced MELC were in between the very low AChE contents of erythroid cells and the huge amounts of activity exhibited by megakaryocytes and platelets [1].
  • We have examined the efficacy of cholinergic agonists to release endogenous AChE and catecholamines (CA) from monolayer cultures of purified bovine adrenal chromaffin cells [19].

Associations of ACHE with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ACHE


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACHE

  • Analysis of purified preparations of FBS AChE by gel permeation chromatography revealed the presence of a stable, catalytically active, monomeric form of this enzyme [29].
  • Additional extensive identity between the fetal serum and brain AChEs was demonstrated by sequencing several brain AChE peptides isolated by high performance liquid chromatography after trypsin digestion of nitrocellulose blots of brain AChE catalytic subunits [17].
  • Molecular cloning studies have so far failed to find evidence of more than one AChE gene in any organism although alternative splicing of torpedo AChE mRNA results in different C-terminal sequences for the A12 and G2 AChE forms [17].
  • Cytoplasmic shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation of nucleus as well as DNA strand breaks detected with the TUNEL technique indicated that apoptotic cell death is involved in the effect of AChE [2].
  • After 3 or 4 days of denervation, the AChE activity of the diaphragm stabilized at 35% of the control value [30].


  1. Acetylcholinesterase in murine erythroleukemia (Friend) cells: evidence for megakaryocyte-like expression and potential growth-regulatory role of enzyme activity. Paoletti, F., Mocali, A., Vannucchi, A.M. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Toxic effects of acetylcholinesterase on neuronal and glial-like cells in vitro. Calderón, F.H., von Bernhardi, R., De Ferrari, G., Luza, S., Aldunate, R., Inestrosa, N.C. Mol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. A possible interaction between acetylcholinesterase and dopamine molecules during autoxidation of the amine. Klegeris, A., Korkina, L.G., Greenfield, S.A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Acetylcholinesterase undergoes autolysis to generate trypsin-like activity. Small, D.H., Simpson, R.J. Neurosci. Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Protection of rhesus monkeys against soman and prevention of performance decrement by pretreatment with acetylcholinesterase. Maxwell, D.M., Castro, C.A., De La Hoz, D.M., Gentry, M.K., Gold, M.B., Solana, R.P., Wolfe, A.D., Doctor, B.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Laminin increases both levels and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in calf adrenal chromaffin cells. Acheson, A., Edgar, D., Timpl, R., Thoenen, H. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Selective induction of tyrosine hydroxylase by cell-cell contact in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mimicked by plasma membranes. Saadat, S., Thoenen, H. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunohistochemical localization of monoclonal antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in chick midbrain. Swanson, L.W., Lindstrom, J., Tzartos, S., Schmued, L.C., O'Leary, D.D., Cowan, W.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Acetylcholinesterase of human erythrocytes and neuromuscular junctions: homologies revealed by monoclonal antibodies. Fambrough, D.M., Engel, A.G., Rosenberry, T.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Rate constants of carbamylation and decarbamylation of acetylcholinesterase for physostigmine and carbaryl in the presence of an oxime. Dawson, R.M. Neurochem. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Use of cholinesterases as pretreatment drugs for the protection of rhesus monkeys against soman toxicity. Wolfe, A.D., Blick, D.W., Murphy, M.R., Miller, S.A., Gentry, M.K., Hartgraves, S.L., Doctor, B.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro and in vivo action of diisopropylfluorophosphate, of atropine and their synergism on acetylcholinesterase activity. Molinengo, L., Ghi, P. Pharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Properties of bovine erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase solubilized by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C1. Taguchi, R., Ikezawa, H. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. p-Aminobenzoic acid derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Correa-Basurto, J., Alcántara, I.V., Espinoza-Fonseca, L.M., Trujillo-Ferrara, J.G. European journal of medicinal chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Bovine acetylcholinesterase: cloning, expression and characterization. Mendelson, I., Kronman, C., Ariel, N., Shafferman, A., Velan, B. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell contact-mediated regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Acheson, A.L., Thoenen, H. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Bovine brain acetylcholinesterase primary sequence involved in intersubunit disulfide linkages. Roberts, W.L., Doctor, B.P., Foster, J.D., Rosenberry, T.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Asymmetric and globular forms of acetylcholinesterase in mammals and birds. Bon, S., Vigny, M., Massoulié, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Nicotine stimulates secretion of both catecholamines and acetylcholinesterase from cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. Mizobe, F., Livett, B.G. J. Neurosci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of the regulatory subunit of type I adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in differentiated N-18 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Liu, A.Y., Chan, T., Chen, K.Y. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular species analysis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of Torpedo marmorata acetylcholinesterase. Bütikofer, P., Kuypers, F.A., Shackleton, C., Brodbeck, U., Stieger, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Acetylcholinesterase from bovine caudate nucleus is attached to membranes by a novel subunit distinct from those of acetylcholinesterases in other tissues. Inestrosa, N.C., Roberts, W.L., Marshall, T.L., Rosenberry, T.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Acetylcholinesterase from fetal bovine serum. Purification and characterization of soluble G4 enzyme. Ralston, J.S., Rush, R.S., Doctor, B.P., Wolfe, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Structural organization of the bovine thyroglobulin gene and of its 5'-flanking region. de Martynoff, G., Pohl, V., Mercken, L., van Ommen, G.J., Vassart, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Synthesis of tricyclic 1,3-oxazin-4-ones and kinetic analysis of cholesterol esterase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Pietsch, M., Gütschow, M. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Parallel but separate release of catecholamines and acetylcholinesterase from stimulated adrenal chromaffin cells in culture. Mizobe, F., Iwamoto, M., Livett, B.G. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C solubilized G2 acetylcholinesterase from plasma membranes of chromaffin cells. Prieto, A.L., Fuentes, M.E., Arqueros, L., Inestrosa, N.C. J. Neurosci. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. The cholinergic pharmacology of tetrahydroaminoacridine in vivo and in vitro. Hunter, A.J., Murray, T.K., Jones, J.A., Cross, A.J., Green, A.R. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Natural monomeric form of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase lacks the C-terminal tetramerization domain. Saxena, A., Hur, R.S., Luo, C., Doctor, B.P. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of acute and chronic denervation on release of acetylcholinesterase and its molecular forms in rat diaphragms. Cater, J.L., Brimijoin, S. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
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