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Gene Review

Snca  -  synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Alpha-synuclein
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Disease relevance of Snca


Psychiatry related information on Snca


High impact information on Snca

  • Nigral neurons in rotenone-treated rats accumulate fibrillar cytoplasmic inclusions that contain ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein [8].
  • In aged rats fed throughout life with PUFA-enriched diets, genes with altered expressions included transthyretin, alpha-synuclein, and calmodulins, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and learning [9].
  • Similar to alpha-synuclein mRNA levels, protein levels in the hippocampus were higher in iP rats than iNP rats [10].
  • Total gene expression analysis (TOGA) was used to identify genes that are differentially expressed in brain regions between the alcohol-naive, inbred alcohol-preferring (iP), and -nonpreferring (iNP) rats. alpha-Synuclein, expressed at >2-fold higher levels in the hippocampus of the iP than the iNP rat, was prioritized for further study [10].
  • alpha-Synuclein maps to a quantitative trait locus for alcohol preference and is differentially expressed in alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Snca


Biological context of Snca


Anatomical context of Snca

  • Alpha-synuclein was robustly distributed in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, but was very weak or virtually absent from the perikarya of the neurons in the pars compacta [1].
  • Alpha-synuclein was not observed in perikarya, but was distributed with high intensity in nerve terminals in the caudate and putamen and ventral pallidum, where beta-synuclein was much weaker and less densely distributed in the caudate and putamen [1].
  • Our results indicated that mRNA expression and immunoreactivity of ASN is similar in brain cortex, hippocampus and striatum but markedly lower in cerebellum comparing to the other brain parts [17].
  • Interestingly, in the hypothalamus the levels of alpha-synuclein remained decreased after 21 days post treatment perhaps due to regional differences in the PCBs elimination or perhaps a more specific interaction with the dopaminergic cells that are present in the hypothalamus that needs to be investigated further [18].
  • The immunoreactivity of ASN in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) from aged brain cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum is significantly lower comparing to adult by 39%, 24% and 65%, respectively [17].

Associations of Snca with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Snca


Enzymatic interactions of Snca


Regulatory relationships of Snca


Other interactions of Snca


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Snca


  1. Differential localization of alpha-, beta- and gamma-synucleins in the rat CNS. Li, J.Y., Henning Jensen, P., Dahlström, A. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Inducible expression of mutant alpha-synuclein decreases proteasome activity and increases sensitivity to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Tanaka, Y., Engelender, S., Igarashi, S., Rao, R.K., Wanner, T., Tanzi, R.E., Sawa, A., L Dawson, V., Dawson, T.M., Ross, C.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Rat alpha-synuclein interacts with Tat binding protein 1, a component of the 26S proteasomal complex. Ghee, M., Fournier, A., Mallet, J. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. alpha-synuclein is developmentally expressed in cultured rat brain oligodendrocytes. Richter-Landsberg, C., Gorath, M., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Ultrastructure of alpha-synuclein-positive aggregations in U373 astrocytoma and rat primary glial cells. Stefanova, N., Emgård, M., Klimaschewski, L., Wenning, G.K., Reindl, M. Neurosci. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased expression of rat synuclein in the substantia nigra pars compacta identified by mRNA differential display in a model of developmental target injury. Kholodilov, N.G., Neystat, M., Oo, T.F., Lo, S.E., Larsen, K.E., Sulzer, D., Burke, R.E. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding of alpha-synuclein to brain vesicles is abolished by familial Parkinson's disease mutation. Jensen, P.H., Nielsen, M.S., Jakes, R., Dotti, C.G., Goedert, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease. Betarbet, R., Sherer, T.B., MacKenzie, G., Garcia-Osuna, M., Panov, A.V., Greenamyre, J.T. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain gene expression. Kitajka, K., Sinclair, A.J., Weisinger, R.S., Weisinger, H.S., Mathai, M., Jayasooriya, A.P., Halver, J.E., Puskás, L.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. alpha-Synuclein maps to a quantitative trait locus for alcohol preference and is differentially expressed in alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats. Liang, T., Spence, J., Liu, L., Strother, W.N., Chang, H.W., Ellison, J.A., Lumeng, L., Li, T.K., Foroud, T., Carr, L.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Parkin cleaves intracellular alpha-synuclein inclusions via the activation of calpain. Kim, S.J., Sung, J.Y., Um, J.W., Hattori, N., Mizuno, Y., Tanaka, K., Paik, S.R., Kim, J., Chung, K.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Synucleins are developmentally expressed, and alpha-synuclein regulates the size of the presynaptic vesicular pool in primary hippocampal neurons. Murphy, D.D., Rueter, S.M., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Alpha-synuclein and Parkinson's disease: selective neurodegenerative effect of alpha-synuclein fragment on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Forloni, G., Bertani, I., Calella, A.M., Thaler, F., Invernizzi, R. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Alpha-synuclein protein is not scavenged in neuronal loss induced by kainic acid or focal ischemia. Kitamura, Y., Ishida, Y., Takata, K., Kakimura, J., Mizutani, H., Shimohama, S., Akaike, A., Taniguchi, T. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Annular alpha-synuclein protofibrils are produced when spherical protofibrils are incubated in solution or bound to brain-derived membranes. Ding, T.T., Lee, S.J., Rochet, J.C., Lansbury, P.T. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Age-dependent differential regulation of genes encoding APP and alpha-synuclein in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Stéphan, A., Davis, S., Salin, H., Dumas, S., Mallet, J., Laroche, S. Hippocampus. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of alpha-synuclein in different brain parts of adult and aged rats. Adamczyk, A., Solecka, J., Strosznajder, J.B. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain. Malkiewicz, K., Mohammed, R., Folkesson, R., Winblad, B., Szutowski, M., Benedikz, E. Toxicol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The induction of amyloid precursor protein and alpha-synuclein in rat hippocampal astrocytes by diethyldithiocarbamate and copper with or without glutathione. Cheng, S.Y., Trombetta, L.D. Toxicol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. alpha-synuclein is required for the fibrillar nature of ubiquitinated inclusions induced by proteasomal inhibition in primary neurons. Rideout, H.J., Dietrich, P., Wang, Q., Dauer, W.T., Stefanis, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. alpha-synuclein overexpression promotes aggregation of mutant huntingtin. Furlong, R.A., Narain, Y., Rankin, J., Wyttenbach, A., Rubinsztein, D.C. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of alpha-synuclein by bFGF in cultured ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Rideout, H.J., Dietrich, P., Savalle, M., Dauer, W.T., Stefanis, L. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Endogenous alpha-synuclein is induced by valproic acid through histone deacetylase inhibition and participates in neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Leng, Y., Chuang, D.M. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Levels of mRNA Coding for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Synuclein in the Brains of Newborn, Juvenile, and Adult Rats. Malatynska, E., Pinhasov, A., Crooke, J., Horowitz, D., Brenneman, D.E., Ilyin, S.E. J. Mol. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Alpha-synuclein up-regulates expression of caveolin-1 and down-regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in B103 neuroblastoma cells: role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Hashimoto, M., Takenouchi, T., Rockenstein, E., Masliah, E. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Developmental expression of alpha-synuclein in rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Petersen, K., Olesen, O.F., Mikkelsen, J.D. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
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