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Gene Review

Hal  -  histidine ammonia lyase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Histidase, Histidine ammonia-lyase, Huth
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Disease relevance of Hal

  • Rat histidase was found to have 41 and 43% amino acid identity to Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis histidases, respectively [1].
  • A selected rat histidase cDNA clone was introduced into the pET-16b prokaryotic vector and expressed in BL21(DE3)pLysS Escherichia coli [2].
  • During this period, undernutrition also significantly reduced Hal activity and Hal-mRNA concentration [3].
  • These results indicate that rats fed a histidine-imbalanced diet exhibit reduced food intake and weight gain and increased Hal gene expression as a consequence of an increased amino acid catabolism [4].
  • Activity levels of hepatic glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase are reduced to activity levels of control females, while histidase, 5 alpha-reductase, and serum cholinesterase levels are increased to levels of control females, i.e. feminization of all of these enzymes [5].

High impact information on Hal


Chemical compound and disease context of Hal

  • Histidine ammonia-lyase (histidase) from Pseudomonas putida was irreversibly inactivated by L-cysteine at pH 10.5 in the presence of oxygen [8].

Biological context of Hal


Anatomical context of Hal


Associations of Hal with chemical compounds

  • Histidase (Hal), the amino acid-degrading enzyme of histidine, is regulated by the protein content of the diet and by hormones such as glucocorticoids and glucagon [9].
  • Histidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase are the only two enzymes that have been postulated to require the modified amino acid, dehydroalanine, for enzyme activity [7].
  • Cloning and expression of rat histidase. Homology to two bacterial histidases and four phenylalanine ammonia-lyases [1].
  • Estrogen does not induce hepatic histidase in the hypophysectomized rat [13].
  • Treatment of hypophysectomized rats with physiological levels of triiodothyronine (T3) diminished histidase synthetic rates and catalytic activities to normal levels, despite concomitant elevation in total soluble protein synthesis [13].

Other interactions of Hal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hal


  1. Cloning and expression of rat histidase. Homology to two bacterial histidases and four phenylalanine ammonia-lyases. Taylor, R.G., Lambert, M.A., Sexsmith, E., Sadler, S.J., Ray, P.N., Mahuran, D.J., McInnes, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of a rat histidase cDNA sequence and expression in Escherichia coli--evidence of extrahepatic/epidermal distribution. Sano, H., Tada, T., Moriyama, A., Ogawa, H., Asai, K., Kawai, Y., Hodgson, M.E., Kato, T., Wada, Y., Suchi, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatic histidase gene expression responds to protein rehabilitation in undernourished growing rats. Tovar, A.R., Santos, A., Halhali, A., Bourges, H., Torres, N. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Histidine-imbalanced diets stimulate hepatic histidase gene expression in rats. Torres, N., Beristain, L., Bourges, H., Tovar, A.R. J. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation (feminization) of hepatic enzymes by an ectopic pituitary tumor. Lamartiniere, C.A. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. ras transformation of simian virus 40-immortalized rat hepatocytes: an in vitro model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Fang, X.J., Flowers, M., Keating, A., Cameron, R., Sherman, M. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved serines in rat histidase. Identification of serine 254 as an essential active site residue. Taylor, R.G., McInnes, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of Ser143 as the site of modification in the active site of histidine ammonia-lyase. Hernandez, D., Stroh, J.G., Phillips, A.T. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation by glucagon of the rat histidase gene promoter in cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoblastoma cells. Alemán, G., Ortíz, V., Langley, E., Tovar, A.R., Torres, N. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Soy protein, casein, and zein regulate histidase gene expression by modulating serum glucagon. Tovar, A.R., Ascencio, C., Torres, N. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Hepatic histidase and muscle branched chain aminotransferase gene expression in experimental nephrosis. Ascencio, C., Tovar, A.R., Medina-Campos, O.N., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Torres, N. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Histidase mRNA. Nature of translational products, tissue specificity, and differential development in male and female rat liver. Hryb, D.J., Feigelson, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of hypophysectomy and triiodothyronine on de novo biosynthesis, catalytic activity, and estrogen induction of rat liver histidase. Armstrong, E.G., Feigelson, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of histidine, decarboxylation in vivo by 2-hydroxy-5-carbomethoxybenzyloxyamine, a new, potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase. Huszti, Z., Sourkes, T.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Shift of metabolism in rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions with respect to changes in daily rhythms of enzyme activity. Nagai, K., Inoue, S., Ookura, M., Tsujimoto, H., Mori, T., Egawa, M., Satoh, S., Nakagawa, H. International journal of obesity. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Quantification of the carbon flow through the folate-dependent one-carbon pool using radiolabeled histidine: effect of altered thyroid and folate status. Schalinske, K.L., Steele, R.D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
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