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Gene Review

HAL  -  histidine ammonia-lyase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HIS, HSTD, Histidase, Histidine ammonia-lyase
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Disease relevance of HAL


Psychiatry related information on HAL

  • The results of this trial suggest that the therapeutic effect of HAL/AMI is superior to RIS in the total group of patients with combined psychotic and depressive symptoms [6].
  • The main difference was that patients treated with LAP and HAL returned to normal physical activity and work significantly earlier than those who underwent OD [7].
  • These two changes to the HAL model produce measures of word neighborhood density that are reliably predictive of human lexical decision reaction times [8].
  • The wide and unique spectrum of receptor activity of CLO in comparison with HAL as well as some neurotransmitters' interactions may explain its usefulness in long-term therapy of bipolar affective disorder and schizoaffective disorder with co-occurred cognitive deficits [9].

High impact information on HAL

  • The Mr, CD cluster dendrogram analysis, and lack of induction by IL-1 of HAL 1/13 distinguish it from most other known endothelial cell adhesion molecules [5].
  • The contribution of the HAL 1/13 ligand to leukocyte adhesion significantly increased (more than twofold) when the muscle or endothelial cells had been exposed previously to a hypoxic environment [5].
  • Conformational searches showed that these distances were also unusually short and exhibited very little variation in the Delta-Ala143 HAL tetramer, indicating that like GFP the tetrameric form of HAL is rigidly preorganized for cyclization [10].
  • Tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) is a recently described member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family, which also includes phenylalanine (PAL) and histidine ammonia-lyases (HAL) [11].
  • The cell line v-ras-HAL was derived by microinjection of HAL cells with v-Ha-ras DNA [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of HAL


Biological context of HAL


Anatomical context of HAL


Associations of HAL with chemical compounds

  • OBJECTIVES: To assess in vivo receptor occupancy (RO) in patients clinically treated with FLX (n = 13, 5.7 +/- 1.4 mg/day) in comparison with risperidone (RIS, n = 11, 3.6 +/- 1.3 mg/day) and haloperidol (HAL, n = 11, 8.5 +/- 5.5 mg/day) [22].
  • Forty-six unpremedicated children had anesthesia induced by immediate 8% sevoflurane (high sevoflurane [HS]; circuit primed with 70% N2O and 8% sevoflurane before application of the face mask), gradual sevoflurane (GS; primed with 70% N2O with increments of sevoflurane), and gradual halothane (HAL; 70% N2O with incremental halothane) [23].
  • Unlike histidinoalanine, this crosslink appears to accumulate in relatively high concentrations in water-soluble lens proteins; its concentration was 9-fold higher than histidinoalanine from the same proteins (0.26+/-0.06 HAL vs 2.34+/-0.76 LAN nmol/mg protein; p<0.0004) [24].
  • These results indicate that MA-HAL specifically binds to and masks the high-affinity lysine-binding site of plasminogen [25].
  • Indeed, this antibody (MA-HAL) reacted with plasminogen and with a fragment of plasminogen composed of the first three triple-loop structures (LBS I) and was displaced by 6-aminohexanoic acid (50% displacement at 25 microM) [25].

Other interactions of HAL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HAL


  1. Regulation by glucagon of the rat histidase gene promoter in cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoblastoma cells. Alemán, G., Ortíz, V., Langley, E., Tovar, A.R., Torres, N. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The human ryanodine receptor gene: its mapping to 19q13.1, placement in a chromosome 19 linkage group, and exclusion as the gene causing myotonic dystrophy. MacKenzie, A.E., Korneluk, R.G., Zorzato, F., Fujii, J., Phillips, M., Iles, D., Wieringa, B., Leblond, S., Bailly, J., Willard, H.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered chromosome 6 in immortal human fibroblasts. Hubbard-Smith, K., Patsalis, P., Pardinas, J.R., Jha, K.K., Henderson, A.S., Ozer, H.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound imaging for longitudinal evaluation of liver metastases in preclinical models. Graham, K.C., Wirtzfeld, L.A., MacKenzie, L.T., Postenka, C.O., Groom, A.C., MacDonald, I.C., Fenster, A., Lacefield, J.C., Chambers, A.F. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of a hypoxia-responsive adhesion molecule for leukocytes on human endothelial cells. Ginis, I., Mentzer, S.J., Li, X., Faller, D.V. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Risperidone versus haloperidol and amitriptyline in the treatment of patients with a combined psychotic and depressive syndrome. Müller-Siecheneder, F., Müller, M.J., Hillert, A., Szegedi, A., Wetzel, H., Benkert, O. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Donor nephrectomy: A comparison of techniques and results of open, hand assisted and full laparoscopic nephrectomy. El-Galley, R., Hood, N., Young, C.J., Deierhoi, M., Urban, D.A. J. Urol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Word frequency effects in high-dimensional co-occurrence models: A new approach. Shaoul, C., Westbury, C. Behavior research methods. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of haloperidol and clozapine on some behavioral effects in rats. Nowakowska, E., Kus, K., Krzyzanski, W., Czubak, A. Arzneimittel-Forschung (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Computational analysis of the autocatalytic posttranslational cyclization observed in histidine ammonia-lyase. A comparison with green fluorescent protein. Donnelly, M., Fedeles, F., Wirstam, M., Siegbahn, P.E., Zimmer, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Discovery of a substrate selectivity switch in tyrosine ammonia-lyase, a member of the aromatic amino Acid lyase family. Watts, K.T., Mijts, B.N., Lee, P.C., Manning, A.J., Schmidt-Dannert, C. Chem. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Cooperativity of SV40 T antigen and ras in progressive stages of transformation of human fibroblasts. White, J.A., Carter, S.G., Ozer, H.L., Boyd, A.L. Exp. Cell Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in apoptotic induction by hexaminolevulinate-mediated photodynamic therapy in human lymphoma cells. Furre, I.E., M??ller, M.T., Shahzidi, S., Nesland, J.M., Peng, Q. Apoptosis (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Hepatic histidase and muscle branched chain aminotransferase gene expression in experimental nephrosis. Ascencio, C., Tovar, A.R., Medina-Campos, O.N., Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Torres, N. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Disturbances in histidine metabolism in children with speech abnormalities. Pieniazek, D., Kubalska, J., Pronicka, E., Stecko, E. Acta anthropogenetica. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Absence of L-histidine lyase and histidine imidazole metabolites in human adenomatous prostate. van Sande, M., Van Camp, K. Urologia internationalis. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the human histidase gene (HAL). Suchi, M., Sano, H., Mizuno, H., Wada, Y. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular characterization of histidinemia: identification of four missense mutations in the histidase gene. Kawai, Y., Moriyama, A., Asai, K., Coleman-Campbell, C.M., Sumi, S., Morishita, H., Suchi, M. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of histidase to human chromosome region 12q22----q24.1 and mouse chromosome region 10C2----D1. Taylor, R.G., García-Heras, J., Sadler, S.J., Lafreniere, R.G., Willard, H.F., Ledbetter, D.H., McInnes, R.R. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Segmental differentiation in the leech central nervous system: proposed segmental homologs of the heart accessory neurons. Stewart, R.R., Gao, W.Q., Macagno, E.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Reproductive risks for translocation carriers: cytogenetic study and analysis of pregnancy outcome in 58 families. Neri, G., Serra, A., Campana, M., Tedeschi, B. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Occupancy of dopamine D(1), D (2) and serotonin (2A) receptors in schizophrenic patients treated with flupentixol in comparison with risperidone and haloperidol. Reimold, M., Solbach, C., Noda, S., Schaefer, J.E., Bartels, M., Beneke, M., Machulla, H.J., Bares, R., Glaser, T., Wormstall, H. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Immediate 8% sevoflurane induction in children: a comparison with incremental sevoflurane and incremental halothane. Baum, V.C., Yemen, T.A., Baum, L.D. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Dehydroalanine crosslinks in human lens. Linetsky, M., Hill, J.M., LeGrand, R.D., Hu, F. Exp. Eye Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. A monoclonal antibody directed against the high-affinity lysine-binding site (LBS) of human plasminogen. Role of LBS in the regulation of fibrinolysis. Holvoet, P., Lijnen, H.R., Collen, D. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Dopamine receptor responsivity in schizophrenic patients before and after switch from haloperidol to risperidone. Markianos, M., Hatzimanolis, J., Lykouras, L. Psychiatry research. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Biochemical study of malnutrition. Part VI: Histidine and its metabolites. Antener, I., Verwilghen, A.M., Van Geert, C., Mauron, J. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Computer-assisted learning in critical care: from ENIAC to HAL. Tegtmeyer, K., Ibsen, L., Goldstein, B. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
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