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Gene Review

KRT15  -  keratin 15, type I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CK-15, CK15, Cytokeratin-15, K15, K1CO, ...
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Disease relevance of KRT15


High impact information on KRT15


Chemical compound and disease context of KRT15


Biological context of KRT15

  • The expression of keratin 15, the alternative basal cell keratin, was increased, suggesting upregulation or stabilization to compensate for the lack of keratin 14 [11].
  • The genes for human cytokeratins 4 and 15 (KRT4 and 15) are assigned to the p11.2----q12 region of chromosome 12 (cytokeratin 4) and to the q21----q23 region of chromosome 17 (cytokeratin 15), respectively [12].
  • Consistent with the in vitro data, we found a significant reduction of the K15 mRNA levels after skin injury, whereas K14 expression increased during the wound healing process [13].
  • Cytokeratin 15 can be used to identify the limbal phenotype in normal and diseased ocular surfaces [14].
  • Keratin 15 expression in stratified epithelia: downregulation in activated keratinocytes [1].

Anatomical context of KRT15

  • These data demonstrate that K15 is excluded from the activated keratinocytes of the hyperthickened wound epidermis, possibly as a result of increased growth factor expression in injured skin [13].
  • Immunostaining revealed the presence of K15 in all basal cells of the epidermis adjacent to the wound, but not in the hyperproliferative epithelium above the granulation tissue [13].
  • The identified cDNA includes sequences of the keratin 15 (K15) gene which encodes a component of the cytoskeleton of basal cells in stratified epithelia [13].
  • Although K15 in normal hair follicles was virtually absent from hair bulbs, it was expressed by a subset of keratinocytes in the outer root sheath [1].
  • RESULTS: In human conjunctival epithelium, strong expression of K15 was observed in basal cells, whereas K19 was expressed in both basal and suprabasal layers (K15(bas)/K19(bas-sup)/K12(-)) [14].

Associations of KRT15 with chemical compounds

  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 12 cases of primary EPD (three anal, nine vulvar) were studied immunohistochemically with antibodies to CK15 and CK19 [15].
  • In K15 mice, [3H]thymidine incorporation of stage VIII tubule segments was decreased, suggesting that excess amounts of putrescine selectively inhibit meiotic DNA synthesis [16].
  • While the CD8-K15 chimera was not capable of eliciting cellular signal transduction upon stimulation with an anti-CD8 antibody, it significantly inhibited B-cell receptor signaling, as evidenced by a suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium mobilization [5].
  • K15 genotyping showed that 56% exhibited M form, of which 89% exhibited C3 K1 subtype and 44% exhibited P form [17].
  • Results In the distant uninvolved skin the expression of beta1 integrin was decreased and keratin 15 expression was lost [18].

Other interactions of KRT15

  • By comparison, K14 expression was found throughout the outer root sheath of hair follicles; however, when both K14 alleles were naturally ablated, the expression of K15 was also observed throughout the outer root sheath of the follicles [1].
  • In organotypical cultures where differentiating keratinocytes expressed markers of activated phenotype, i.e., K6 and K16, expression of K15 was undetectable [1].
  • Keratin 15 (K15) is a type I keratin without a defined type II partner whose expression in epidermal diseases has not been investigated [1].
  • Using a specific CK15 antibody, 38% of TB showed a focal labeling and all BCC remained negative; 70% of TB and 22% of BCC expressed CK19 [19].
  • Between K15 and K17 at least one additional, unidentified keratin gene is present [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KRT15


  1. Keratin 15 expression in stratified epithelia: downregulation in activated keratinocytes. Waseem, A., Dogan, B., Tidman, N., Alam, Y., Purkis, P., Jackson, S., Lalli, A., Machesney, M., Leigh, I.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Mapping the site(s) of MgATP and MgADP interaction with the nitrogenase of Azotobacter vinelandii. Lysine 15 of the iron protein plays a major role in MgATP interaction. Seefeldt, L.C., Morgan, T.V., Dean, D.R., Mortenson, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of host gene expression by the K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Brinkmann, M.M., Pietrek, M., Dittrich-Breiholz, O., Kracht, M., Schulz, T.F. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. K15 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is latently expressed and binds to HAX-1, a protein with antiapoptotic function. Sharp, T.V., Wang, H.W., Koumi, A., Hollyman, D., Endo, Y., Ye, H., Du, M.Q., Boshoff, C. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of the novel K15 gene at the rightmost end of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome. Choi, J.K., Lee, B.S., Shim, S.N., Li, M., Jung, J.U. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The basal keratin network of stratified squamous epithelia: defining K15 function in the absence of K14. Lloyd, C., Yu, Q.C., Cheng, J., Turksen, K., Degenstein, L., Hutton, E., Fuchs, E. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular characterization and expression of the stratification-related cytokeratins 4 and 15. Leube, R.E., Bader, B.L., Bosch, F.X., Zimbelmann, R., Achtstaetter, T., Franke, W.W. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyroid hormones and gamma interferon specifically increase K15 keratin gene transcription. Radoja, N., Stojadinovic, O., Waseem, A., Tomic-Canic, M., Milisavljevic, V., Teebor, S., Blumenberg, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Complete genomic sequence of an Epstein-Barr virus-related herpesvirus naturally infecting a new world primate: a defining point in the evolution of oncogenic lymphocryptoviruses. Rivailler, P., Cho, Y.G., Wang, F. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Low T Cell Responses to Human Herpesvirus 8 in Patients with AIDS-Related and Classic Kaposi Sarcoma. Guihot, A., Dupin, N., Marcelin, A.G., Gorin, I., Bedin, A.S., Bossi, P., Galicier, L., Oksenhendler, E., Autran, B., Carcelain, G. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of keratin 14 ablation on the clinical and cellular phenotype in a kindred with recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Jonkman, M.F., Heeres, K., Pas, H.H., van Luyn, M.J., Elema, J.D., Corden, L.D., Smith, F.J., McLean, W.H., Ramaekers, F.C., Burton, M., Scheffer, H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Subchromosomal localization of two human cytokeratin genes (KRT4 and KRT15) by in situ hybridization. Barletta, C., Batticane, N., Ragusa, R.M., Leube, R., Peschle, C., Romano, V. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Suppression of keratin 15 expression by transforming growth factor beta in vitro and by cutaneous injury in vivo. Werner, S., Munz, B. Exp. Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytokeratin 15 can be used to identify the limbal phenotype in normal and diseased ocular surfaces. Yoshida, S., Shimmura, S., Kawakita, T., Miyashita, H., Den, S., Shimazaki, J., Tsubota, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Extramammary Paget's disease--a proliferation of adnexal origin? Regauer, S. Histopathology (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Polyamines and regulation of spermatogenesis: selective stimulation of late spermatogonia in transgenic mice overexpressing the human ornithine decarboxylase gene. Hakovirta, H., Keiski, A., Toppari, J., Halmekytö, M., Alhonen, L., Jänne, J., Parvinen, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Distinct distribution of rare US genotypes of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in South Texas: implications for KSHV epidemiology. Zhang, Y.J., Davis, T.L., Wang, X.P., Deng, J.H., Baillargeon, J., Yeh, I.T., Jenson, H.B., Gao, S.J. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Assessment of epidermal subpopulations and proliferation in healthy skin, symptomless and lesional skin of spreading psoriasis. Körver, J.E., van Duijnhoven, M.W., Pasch, M.C., van Erp, P.E., van de Kerkhof, P.C. Br. J. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytokeratins as markers of follicular differentiation: an immunohistochemical study of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Kurzen, H., Esposito, L., Langbein, L., Hartschuh, W. The American Journal of dermatopathology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Close linkage of the two keratin gene clusters in the human genome. Milisavljevic, V., Freedberg, I.M., Blumenberg, M. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of target genes for the Ewing's sarcoma EWS/FLI fusion protein by representational difference analysis. Braun, B.S., Frieden, R., Lessnick, S.L., May, W.A., Denny, C.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular epidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 in africa: both B and A5 K1 genotypes, as well as the M and P genotypes of K14.1/K15 loci, are frequent and widespread. Lacoste, V., Judde, J.G., Brière, J., Tulliez, M., Garin, B., Kassa-Kelembho, E., Morvan, J., Couppié, P., Clyti, E., Forteza Vila, J., Rio, B., Delmer, A., Mauclère, P., Gessain, A. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
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