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Gene Review

LCN1  -  lipocalin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Lipocalin-1, MGC71975, PMFA, TLC, TP, ...
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Disease relevance of LCN1

  • As a basis for further investigations concerning the structure-function relationship and to generate a source of recombinant protein for X-ray crystallography studies, LCN1 was produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein [1].
  • Furthermore, the results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of bronchial secretions from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), which are usually characterized by an increase of airway lipids, suggested that LCN1 secretion was enhanced [2].
  • Two forms of beta-lactoglobulin contain only Glu-134 (analogous to Glu-127 of the Serratia nuclease) yet retain nuclease activity equal to or greater than that of tear lipocalin [3].
  • Since protein-protein interaction or macromolecular complexation is a common feature of many lipocalins, we applied phage display technology to identify TL interacting proteins [4].
  • These data indicate a high degree of correlation between VEG/PF expression by gliomas and the occurrence of PVBE or TACs, irrespective of tumor grade, thus supporting VEG/PF's pivotal role as the common pathophysiological link between these processes [5].

High impact information on LCN1

  • The fold of Tlc most closely resembles the bovine dander allergen Bos d 2, a well characterized prototypic lipocalin, but also reveals similarity with beta-lactoglobulin [6].
  • Notably, earlier findings of biological activity as a thiol protease inhibitor have no correspondence in the three-dimensional structure of Tlc, rather it appears that its proteolytic fragments could be responsible for this phenomenon [6].
  • In contrast with earlier assumptions, which classified human tear lipocalin (Tlc) as an outlier member of the lipocalin protein family, the 1.8-A resolution crystal structure of the recombinant apoprotein confirms the typical eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel architecture with an alpha-helix attached to it [6].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of tear prealbumin shares 58% identity with von Ebner's gland protein from rat, which is supposed to be involved in taste reception [7].
  • The gene encoding human tear prealbumin, a major component of the protein fraction of tear fluid, was cloned from total cDNA of lacrimal gland by polymerase chain reaction using synthetic oligonucleotides derived from N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified protein [7].

Biological context of LCN1


Anatomical context of LCN1


Associations of LCN1 with chemical compounds

  • LCN1 is an unusual lipocalin member that binds a variety of lipophilic compounds and exhibits cysteine proteinase inhibitor and antimicrobial activities [2].
  • Midpoints of transition for the binding affinity of TL tryptophan mutants to 16AP occur at pH 5.5-6 [15].
  • Sequence similarity to proteins such as the retinol binding protein and the odorant binding protein which are lipophilic ligand carriers, suggests a possible function for the human VEG protein in taste perception [11].
  • These results are consistent with the concept that estrogen has an important role in establishing the new vascular system within the developing placenta during primate pregnancy and that VEG/PF mediates this process [16].
  • Relaxation of beta-structure in tear lipocalin and enhancement of retinoid binding [17].

Other interactions of LCN1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LCN1


  1. Structural organization of the gene encoding the human lipocalin tear prealbumin and synthesis of the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Holzfeind, P., Redl, B. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a lipocalin in mucosal glands of the human tracheobronchial tree and its enhanced secretion in cystic fibrosis. Redl, B., Wojnar, P., Ellemunter, H., Feichtinger, H. Lab. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Endonuclease activity in lipocalins. Yusifov, T.N., Abduragimov, A.R., Gasymov, O.K., Glasgow, B.J. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Phage display reveals a novel interaction of human tear lipocalin and thioredoxin which is relevant for ligand binding. Redl, B., Merschak, P., Abt, B., Wojnar, P. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor expression in human glioma specimens: correlation with vasogenic brain edema and tumor-associated cysts. Strugar, J.G., Criscuolo, G.R., Rothbart, D., Harrington, W.N. J. Neurosurg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. The 1.8-A crystal structure of human tear lipocalin reveals an extended branched cavity with capacity for multiple ligands. Breustedt, D.A., Korndörfer, I.P., Redl, B., Skerra, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. cDNA cloning and sequencing reveals human tear prealbumin to be a member of the lipophilic-ligand carrier protein superfamily. Redl, B., Holzfeind, P., Lottspeich, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Assignment of LCN1 to human chromosome 9 is confirmed. Lassagne, H., Nguyen, V.C., Mattei, M.G., Gachon, A.M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Fine genetic mapping of LCN1/D9S1826 within 9q34. Lacazette, E., Pitiot, G., Jobert, S., Mallet, J., Gachon, A.M. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Confirmation of 9q34 as the chromosomal site of the human lipocalin LCN1 gene. Herzog, H., Baumgartner, M., Holzfeind, P., Redl, B. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of human von Ebner's gland protein, a member of the lipocalin superfamily highly expressed in lingual salivary glands. Bläker, M., Kock, K., Ahlers, C., Buck, F., Schmale, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of the gene for tear lipocalin/von Ebner's gland protein in human prostate. Holzfeind, P., Merschak, P., Rogatsch, H., Culig, Z., Feichtinger, H., Klocker, H., Redl, B. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of purified tear lipocalin with lipid membranes. Saaren-Seppälä, H., Jauhiainen, M., Tervo, T.M., Redl, B., Kinnunen, P.K., Holopainen, J.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor by endometrial glandular epithelial and stromal cells in baboons during the menstrual cycle and after ovariectomy. Niklaus, A.L., Babischkin, J.S., Aberdeen, G.W., Pepe, G.J., Albrecht, E.D. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Interstrand loops CD and EF act as pH-dependent gates to regulate fatty acid ligand binding in tear lipocalin. Gasymov, O.K., Abduragimov, A.R., Yusifov, T.N., Glasgow, B.J. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Developmental regulation of vascular endothelial growth/permeability factor messenger ribonucleic acid levels in and vascularization of the villous placenta during baboon pregnancy. Hildebrandt, V.A., Babischkin, J.S., Koos, R.D., Pepe, G.J., Albrecht, E.D. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Relaxation of beta-structure in tear lipocalin and enhancement of retinoid binding. Gasymov, O.K., Abduragimov, A.R., Yusifov, T.N., Glasgow, B.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of ocular mucus extracts by crossed immunoelectrophoretic techniques. Chao, C.C., Stuebben, A.M., Butala, S.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The N-terminal part of recombinant human tear lipocalin/von Ebner's gland protein confers cysteine proteinase inhibition depending on the presence of the entire cystatin-like sequence motifs. Wojnar, P., van't Hof, W., Merschak, P., Lechner, M., Redl, B. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Medical significance of cysteine protease inhibitors in mammalian secretory fluids. Katunuma, N., Shiota, H., Le, Q.T. J. Med. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily. Holzfeind, P., Merschak, P., Dieplinger, H., Redl, B. Exp. Eye Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. RET and anisotropy measurements establish the proximity of the conserved Trp17 to Ile98 and Phe99 of tear lipocalin. Gasymov, O.K., Abduragimov, A.R., Yusifov, T.N., Glasgow, B.J. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Assignment of the human tear lipocalin gene (LCN1) to 9q34 by in situ hybridization. Lassagne, H., Ressot, C., Mattei, M.G., Gachon, A.M. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Assignment of the gene for human tear prealbumin (LCN1), a member of the lipocalin superfamily, to chromosome 8q24. Baumgartner, M., Holzfeind, P., Redl, B. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Analysis of human tear proteins by different high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques. Baier, G., Wollensak, G., Mur, E., Redl, B., Stöffler, G., Göttinger, W. J. Chromatogr. (1990) [Pubmed]
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