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Gene Review

LOXL1  -  lysyl oxidase-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: LOL, LOXL, Lysyl oxidase homolog 1, Lysyl oxidase-like protein 1
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Disease relevance of LOXL1


High impact information on LOXL1

  • Elastic fiber homeostasis requires lysyl oxidase-like 1 protein [6].
  • Deposition of fibulin-5 on microfibrils promotes coacervation and alignment of tropoelastins on microfibrils, and also facilitates cross-linking of tropoelastin by tethering lysyl oxidase-like 1, 2, and 4 enzymes [7].
  • Using BLASTN searches, we identified a LOXL3 variant LOXL3-sv1 that lacked the sequences corresponding to exons 1, 2, 3, and 5 of LOXL3 [8].
  • These findings strongly indicate that LOXL3 encodes two variants, LOXL3 and LOXL3-sv1, both of which function as amine oxidases with distinct tissue and substrate specificities from one another [8].
  • A Tissue-specific Variant of the Human Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein 3 (LOXL3) Functions as an Amine Oxidase with Substrate Specificity [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of LOXL1

  • We have isolated a mouse lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) cDNA from a mouse embryo cDNA library and used this cDNA to measure changes in steady state levels of LOXL mRNA during the development of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in adult mice [4].

Biological context of LOXL1

  • These data provide physical mapping information to complement the previous cytogenetic localization of LOXL1 [9].
  • Thus by term, LOX was expressed predominantly in the amniotic epithelium, with little expression in the placenta, while LOXL showed highest gene expression in the placenta and lowest expression in the amnion [10].
  • This lysyl oxidase-like gene, which appears to be no larger than 22.1 kilobases, codes for a single polyadenylated RNA species of 2.48 kilobases and has been mapped to chromosome 15q24-q25 [11].
  • Restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the complete sequence of the lysyl oxidase-like mRNA was encoded by seven exons distributed throughout 25 kilobases of genomic DNA [12].
  • Indeed, recent findings reveal that LOX and LOXL proteins markedly influence cell behavior including chemotactic responses, proliferation, and shifts between the normal and malignant phenotypes [13].

Anatomical context of LOXL1


Associations of LOXL1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of LOXL1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOXL1


  1. Lysyl oxidase-like protein localizes to sites of de novo fibrinogenesis in fibrosis and in the early stromal reaction of ductal breast carcinomas. Decitre, M., Gleyzal, C., Raccurt, M., Peyrol, S., Aubert-Foucher, E., Csiszar, K., Sommer, P. Lab. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Purification of enzymatically active human lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like protein from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies. Jung, S.T., Kim, M.S., Seo, J.Y., Kim, H.C., Kim, Y. Protein Expr. Purif. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Lysyl oxidase-related protein-1 promotes tumor fibrosis and tumor progression in vivo. Akiri, G., Sabo, E., Dafni, H., Vadasz, Z., Kartvelishvily, Y., Gan, N., Kessler, O., Cohen, T., Resnick, M., Neeman, M., Neufeld, G. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Coexpression of the lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL) and the gene encoding type III procollagen in induced liver fibrosis. Kim, Y., Peyrol, S., So, C.K., Boyd, C.D., Csiszar, K. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. A novel human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL4) on chromosome 10q24 has an altered scavenger receptor cysteine rich domain. Asuncion, L., Fogelgren, B., Fong, K.S., Fong, S.F., Kim, Y., Csiszar, K. Matrix Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Elastic fiber homeostasis requires lysyl oxidase-like 1 protein. Liu, X., Zhao, Y., Gao, J., Pawlyk, B., Starcher, B., Spencer, J.A., Yanagisawa, H., Zuo, J., Li, T. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Fibulin-5/DANCE has an elastogenic organizer activity that is abrogated by proteolytic cleavage in vivo. Hirai, M., Ohbayashi, T., Horiguchi, M., Okawa, K., Hagiwara, A., Chien, K.R., Kita, T., Nakamura, T. J. Cell Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. A Tissue-specific Variant of the Human Lysyl Oxidase-like Protein 3 (LOXL3) Functions as an Amine Oxidase with Substrate Specificity. Lee, J.E., Kim, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Physical linkage of the lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL1) gene to the PML gene on human chromosome 15q22. Goy, A., Gilles, F., Remache, Y., Zelenetz, A.D. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Lysyl oxidases: expression in the fetal membranes and placenta. Hein, S., Yamamoto, S.Y., Okazaki, K., Jourdan-LeSaux, C., Csiszar, K., Bryant-Greenwood, G.D. Placenta (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel human cDNA with a predicted protein similar to lysyl oxidase maps to chromosome 15q24-q25. Kenyon, K., Modi, W.S., Contente, S., Friedman, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. A new gene with sequence and structural similarity to the gene encoding human lysyl oxidase. Kim, Y., Boyd, C.D., Csiszar, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Lysyl oxidase: an oxidative enzyme and effector of cell function. Lucero, H.A., Kagan, H.M. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. The Pro-regions of lysyl oxidase and lysyl oxidase-like 1 are required for deposition onto elastic fibers. Thomassin, L., Werneck, C.C., Broekelmann, T.J., Gleyzal, C., Hornstra, I.K., Mecham, R.P., Sommer, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Lysyl oxidase-like and lysyl oxidase are present in the dermis and epidermis of a skin equivalent and in human skin and are associated to elastic fibers. Noblesse, E., Cenizo, V., Bouez, C., Borel, A., Gleyzal, C., Peyrol, S., Jacob, M.P., Sommer, P., Damour, O. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. LOXL as a target to increase the elastin content in adult skin: a dill extract induces the LOXL gene expression. Cenizo, V., André, V., Reymermier, C., Sommer, P., Damour, O., Perrier, E. Exp. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity can delay phenotypic modulation of chondrocytes in two-dimensional culture. Farjanel, J., Sève, S., Borel, A., Sommer, P., Hulmes, D.J. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Experimental study of seita-fitting. Kawahara, M., Sako, H., Sato, H. Journal of human ergology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression and purification of enzymatically active forms of the human lysyl oxidase-like protein 4. Kim, M.S., Kim, S.S., Jung, S.T., Park, J.Y., Yoo, H.W., Ko, J., Csiszar, K., Choi, S.Y., Kim, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Amine oxidase-like activity of polyphenols. Mechanism and properties. Akagawa, M., Suyama, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The LOXL2 gene encodes a new lysyl oxidase-like protein and is expressed at high levels in reproductive tissues. Jourdan-Le Saux, C., Tronecker, H., Bogic, L., Bryant-Greenwood, G.D., Boyd, C.D., Csiszar, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Cloning and characterization of a fourth human lysyl oxidase isoenzyme. Mäki, J.M., Kivirikko, K.I. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The human lysyl oxidase-like gene maps between STS markers D15S215 and GHLC.GCT7C09 on chromosome 15. Szabó, Z., Light, E., Boyd, C.D., Csiszár, K. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Overexpression of a novel lysyl oxidase-like gene in human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Holtmeier, C., Görögh, T., Beier, U., Meyer, J., Hoffmann, M., Gottschlich, S., Heidorn, K., Ambrosch, P., Maune, S. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning and characterization of a human lysyl oxidase-like 3 gene (hLOXL3). Huang, Y., Dai, J., Tang, R., Zhao, W., Zhou, Z., Wang, W., Ying, K., Xie, Y., Mao, Y. Matrix Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Ventilation according to the open lung concept attenuates pulmonary inflammatory response in cardiac surgery. Reis Miranda, D., Gommers, D., Struijs, A., Dekker, R., Mekel, J., Feelders, R., Lachmann, B., Bogers, A.J. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
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