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Gene Review

MBD1  -  methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CXXC-type zinc finger protein 3, CXXC3, Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 1, Methyl-CpG-binding protein MBD1, PCM1, ...
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Disease relevance of MBD1

  • This is the first report demonstrating that CXXC sequence containing MBD1 is overexpressed and can be the major factor of hypermethylated chromatin segments through HDAC1/2 translocation and histone deacetylation in human prostate cancer [1].
  • The MBD1 genotype was determined in 432 lung cancer patients and in 432 healthy control subjects who were frequency matched for age and gender [2].
  • To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined common variants in 12 genes coding for DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetyltransferases, histone methyltrasferases and methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, for association with breast cancer in a large case-control study (N cases = 4474 and N controls = 4580) [3].
  • RFT expressed in some glioma cell lines, U138MG and T98G, but neither in U87MG nor U251MG [4].
  • The defect was CD8 T cell intrinsic, because memory cell development was also delayed when MBD2(-/-) CD8 T cells were adoptively transferred into SCID mice [5].

Psychiatry related information on MBD1

  • The knowledge of additional existing MBD proteins and their expression pattern is important in the context of Rett syndrome [6].
  • The classification of field dependence-independence was based on predetermined RFT and EFT standards [7].
  • Regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1997) predicts that individual differences in the strength of promotion (ideal) and prevention (ought) orientations emerge from patterns of parent/child interactions that emphasize making good things happen versus keeping bad things from happening [8].

High impact information on MBD1


Biological context of MBD1


Anatomical context of MBD1

  • Previous work has shown that MBD1 binds to methylated sites in vivo and in vitro and can repress transcription from methylated templates in transcription extracts and in cultured cells [17].
  • For CXXC sequence containing MBD1, both protein and mRNA were expressed in cancer cell lines, cancer tissues, BPH-1 cell line, and BPH tissues [1].
  • The intracellular domain of teneurin-1 interacts with MBD1 and CAP/ponsin resulting in subcellular codistribution and translocation to the nuclear matrix [18].
  • Sex-specific windows for high mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins 2 and 4 in human fetal gonads [19].
  • A synthetic RNA encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein fused to the methyl-CpG-binding domain and nuclear localization signal of human MBD1 was microinjected into metaphase II-arrested or fertilized oocytes, and the localization of methylated DNA was monitored by live cell imaging [20].

Associations of MBD1 with chemical compounds

  • The mechanism is likely to involve deacetylation, since the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A can overcome MBD1-mediated repression [17].
  • Methyl CpG-binding protein 1 (MBD1), which functions as a transcriptional repressor, was identified as a strong p59 OASL interactor [21].
  • An R269C mutation that resulted in the addition of cysteine near a cysteine rich region was found in the MBD1 gene in one patient [22].
  • We further demonstrate that knockdown of MBD1 by specific small interfering RNAs significantly increases cell sensitivity to MMS [23].
  • Here we show that histone H3 methylase Suv39h1 and the methyl lysine-binding protein HP1 directly interact with MBD of MBD1 in vitro and in cells [24].
  • Use of the DNA demethylating agent 5-azadeoxycytidine abolished the formation of MBD1 foci but not PcG foci [25].

Physical interactions of MBD1


Regulatory relationships of MBD1


Other interactions of MBD1

  • PML-RARalpha recruits MBD1 to its target promoter through an HDAC3-mediated mechanism [14].
  • MeCP2, MBD1 and MBD2 can also repress transcription [29].
  • In the present study, we have investigated the significance of MBD, CXXC, and the C-terminal transcriptional repression domain (TRD) in MBD1 [15].
  • These findings link the p59 OASL with MBD1 transcriptional control in the context of an interferon-stimulated cell, and provide the basis for future studies to examine the functional role of this interaction [21].
  • Thus, the deacetylase-dependent pathway by which MBD1 actively silences methylated genes is likely to be different from that utilized by the methylation-dependent repressors MeCP1 and MeCP2 [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MBD1


  1. Methyl-CpG-DNA binding proteins in human prostate cancer: expression of CXXC sequence containing MBD1 and repression of MBD2 and MeCP2. Patra, S.K., Patra, A., Zhao, H., Carroll, P., Dahiya, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Methyl-CpG binding domain 1 gene polymorphisms and risk of primary lung cancer. Jang, J.S., Lee, S.J., Choi, J.E., Cha, S.I., Lee, E.B., Park, T.I., Kim, C.H., Lee, W.K., Kam, S., Choi, J.Y., Kang, Y.M., Park, R.W., Kim, I.S., Cho, Y.L., Jung, T.H., Han, S.B., Park, J.Y. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Genetic variants in epigenetic genes and breast cancer risk. Cebrian, A., Pharoah, P.D., Ahmed, S., Ropero, S., Fraga, M.F., Smith, P.L., Conroy, D., Luben, R., Perkins, B., Easton, D.F., Dunning, A.M., Esteller, M., Ponder, B.A. Carcinogenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Overexpression of RFT induces G1-S arrest and apoptosis via p53/p21(Waf1) pathway in glioma cell. Kano, H., Arakawa, Y., Takahashi, J.A., Nozaki, K., Kawabata, Y., Takatsuka, K., Kageyama, R., Ueba, T., Hashimoto, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Impaired Memory CD8 T Cell Development in the Absence of Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain Protein 2. Kersh, E.N. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative study of methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins. Roloff, T.C., Ropers, H.H., Nuber, U.A. BMC Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Sex and cognitive influence on visual hemifield superiority for face and letter recognition. Pizzamiglio, L., Zoccolotti, P. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. The Development of Children's Ideal and Ought Self-Guides: Parenting, Temperament, and Individual Differences in Guide Strength. Manian, N., Papadakis, A.A., Strauman, T.J., Essex, M.J. Journal of personality (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. DNMT1 binds HDAC2 and a new co-repressor, DMAP1, to form a complex at replication foci. Rountree, M.R., Bachman, K.E., Baylin, S.B. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification of CpG islands using a methylated DNA binding column. Cross, S.H., Charlton, J.A., Nan, X., Bird, A.P. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. The thymine glycosylase MBD4 can bind to the product of deamination at methylated CpG sites. Hendrich, B., Hardeland, U., Ng, H.H., Jiricny, J., Bird, A. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. A mammalian protein with specific demethylase activity for mCpG DNA. Bhattacharya, S.K., Ramchandani, S., Cervoni, N., Szyf, M. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1 couples histone H3 methylation at lysine 9 by SETDB1 to DNA replication and chromatin assembly. Sarraf, S.A., Stancheva, I. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1 is required for PML-RARalpha function. Villa, R., Morey, L., Raker, V.A., Buschbeck, M., Gutierrez, A., De Santis, F., Corsaro, M., Varas, F., Bossi, D., Minucci, S., Pelicci, P.G., Di Croce, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanism of transcriptional regulation by methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1. Fujita, N., Shimotake, N., Ohki, I., Chiba, T., Saya, H., Shirakawa, M., Nakao, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Methylation-mediated transcriptional silencing in euchromatin by methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1 isoforms. Fujita, N., Takebayashi, S., Okumura, K., Kudo, S., Chiba, T., Saya, H., Nakao, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Active repression of methylated genes by the chromosomal protein MBD1. Ng, H.H., Jeppesen, P., Bird, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. The intracellular domain of teneurin-1 interacts with MBD1 and CAP/ponsin resulting in subcellular codistribution and translocation to the nuclear matrix. Nunes, S.M., Ferralli, J., Choi, K., Brown-Luedi, M., Minet, A.D., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Sex-specific windows for high mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins 2 and 4 in human fetal gonads. Galetzka, D., Weis, E., Tralau, T., Seidmann, L., Haaf, T. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Time-lapse and retrospective analysis of DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos by live cell imaging. Yamazaki, T., Yamagata, K., Baba, T. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Interaction between the 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein p59 OASL and the transcriptional repressor methyl CpG-binding protein 1. Andersen, J.B., Strandbygård, D.J., Hartmann, R., Justesen, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutation analysis of methyl-CpG binding protein family genes in autistic patients. Li, H., Yamagata, T., Mori, M., Yasuhara, A., Momoi, M.Y. Brain Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Methylated DNA-binding domain 1 and methylpurine-DNA glycosylase link transcriptional repression and DNA repair in chromatin. Watanabe, S., Ichimura, T., Fujita, N., Tsuruzoe, S., Ohki, I., Shirakawa, M., Kawasuji, M., Nakao, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Methyl-CpG binding domain 1 (MBD1) interacts with the Suv39h1-HP1 heterochromatic complex for DNA methylation-based transcriptional repression. Fujita, N., Watanabe, S., Ichimura, T., Tsuruzoe, S., Shinkai, Y., Tachibana, M., Chiba, T., Nakao, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Overlapping roles of the methylated DNA-binding protein MBD1 and polycomb group proteins in transcriptional repression of HOXA genes and heterochromatin foci formation. Sakamoto, Y., Watanabe, S., Ichimura, T., Kawasuji, M., Koseki, H., Baba, H., Nakao, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Evolutionary divergence of monocot and dicot methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins. Springer, N.M., Kaeppler, S.M. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of CpG methylation on RAG1/RAG2 reactivity: implications of direct and indirect mechanisms for controlling V(D)J cleavage. Nakase, H., Takahama, Y., Akamatsu, Y. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 represses LINE-1 expression and retrotransposition but not Alu transcription. Yu, F., Zingler, N., Schumann, G., Strätling, W.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Genomic structure and chromosomal mapping of the murine and human Mbd1, Mbd2, Mbd3, and Mbd4 genes. Hendrich, B., Abbott, C., McQueen, H., Chambers, D., Cross, S., Bird, A. Mamm. Genome (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional repression and heterochromatin formation by MBD1 and MCAF/AM family proteins. Ichimura, T., Watanabe, S., Sakamoto, Y., Aoto, T., Fujita, N., Nakao, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Specific binding of the methyl binding domain protein 2 at the BRCA1-NBR2 locus. Auriol, E., Billard, L.M., Magdinier, F., Dante, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Survival of chemo-radiotherapy-treated and thermotherapy-treated patients with unresectable lung cancer. Rizzo, S. Oncol. Rep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Use of a rapid fermentation test for indentification of anaerobic bacteria. Lindquist, B.L., Kjellander, J. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berl.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  34. Protein A immunoadsorption treatment in hematology: an overview. Howe, R.B., Christie, D.J. Journal of clinical apheresis. (1994) [Pubmed]
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