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Gene Review

MPG  -  N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase, 3-methyladenine DNA glycosidase, AAG, ADPG, ANPG, ...
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Disease relevance of MPG


Psychiatry related information on MPG

  • For Wellington-Dufferin, the leading causes of YHLL were concentrated in the program areas of chronic disease, injury, and substance abuse and included four areas not addressed in the MPG (suicide, depression, dementia, and osteoarthritis) [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to examine sociopsychopathological predictors of prospective observed suicide attempts in bulimic women purging type without comorbid major depression (BNG) at the time of study entry and in woman with major depression without comorbid eating disorder at the time of study entry (MDG) [7].

High impact information on MPG

  • We report here that the complete nucleotide sequence of a beta E-gene revealed the expected GAG leads to AAG change in codon 26 but no other mutations [8].
  • We recently demonstrated that the molecular lesion in a Chinese patient with nonfunctional beta-globin mRNA was due to the mutation of the normal lysine codon AAG at amino acid 17 to the amber terminator codon UAG, which prematurely terminates the beta-globin chain [9].
  • Certain of the biological properties of AAG are related to its sialic acid content; thus, clearance and immunogenicity of AAG are markedly increased on desialisation [10].
  • AAG has the ability to inhibit certain lymphocyte re-activities including blastogenesis in response to concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin and allogeneic cells, and these inhibitory effects are enhanced in association with desialisation [10].
  • We report that desialisation of AAG is associated with increased expression of activity inhibitory to the platelet aggregation otherwise observed on stimulation with ADP, collagen or thrombin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of MPG


Biological context of MPG

  • These data suggest that MBD1 cooperates with MPG for transcriptional repression and DNA repair [16].
  • MPG itself actively represses transcription and has a synergistic effect on gene silencing together with MBD1 [16].
  • In this report, we show that the hHR23A and -B also interact with the MPG protein and can serve as accessory proteins for DNA damage recognition in base excision repair [17].
  • Our studies suggest that recruitment of MPG to ERE-containing genes influences transcription and plays a role in maintaining integrity of the genome by recruiting DNA repair proteins to actively transcribing DNA [18].
  • In turn, MPG dramatically stabilized the interaction of ERalpha with ERE-containing oligos, decreased p300-mediated acetylation of the receptor, and reduced transcription of simple and complex ERE-containing reporter plasmids in a dose-dependent manner [18].

Anatomical context of MPG

  • A hamster cell line variant isolated as being resistant to methylmethane sulfonate does not have a higher level of MPG mRNA than the parent cell line [11].
  • Although the 1.1-kilobase mRNAs of MPG from human and rodents are similar in size, liver and cultured cells of rat have much lower levels of MPG mRNA than do human and mouse cells [11].
  • RESULTS: MPG mRNA expression in epithelial ovarian tumor and spermatogenic arrest testis tissues was slightly higher than in normal ovarian and testicular tissues, respectively [4].
  • MPG was stained mostly in the nucleus and faintly-stained in the cytoplasm of normal coelomic epithelium as well as in benign epithelial ovarian tumors [4].
  • In a normal ovary, immunostaining for MPG was observed in the nucleus of oocyte, granulosa and stromal cells [4].

Associations of MPG with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of MPG

  • We report here that methylation-mediated transcriptional repressor methylated DNA-binding domain 1 (MBD1) interacts with methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), which excises damaged bases from substrate DNA [16].

Other interactions of MPG

  • We hypothesize that MBD1 functions as a reservoir for MPG and senses the base damage in chromatin[16]
  • Expression of PADPRP or molecules involved in the BER system [3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1)], have been explored [20].
  • Frequencies of the "A" and "G" alleles (MGMT codon 178, AAG and AGG, respectively) were 0.91 and 0.09, respectively [21].
  • Steady-state mRNA levels of MPG, human Nth homologue (NTH), and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), DNA glycosylases, and human AP site-specific endonuclease (APE), an endonuclease incising DNA at abasic sites, are cell cycle dependent [22].
  • Under the same conditions of treatment, exerting only a weak toxic effect, MPG and DNA ligase I mRNA levels were not enhanced, whereas the amounts of APE and Pol beta mRNA transiently increased by approximately 2-fold after X-ray and MNNG treatment, respectively [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MPG


  1. 3,N4-ethenocytosine, a highly mutagenic adduct, is a primary substrate for Escherichia coli double-stranded uracil-DNA glycosylase and human mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase. Saparbaev, M., Laval, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Human glioma cell sensitivity to the sequence-specific alkylating agent methyl-lexitropsin. Bobola, M.S., Varadarajan, S., Smith, N.W., Goff, R.D., Kolstoe, D.D., Blank, A., Gold, B., Silber, J.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of DNA repair proteins hMSH2, hMSH6, hMLH1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase in melanoma cells with acquired drug resistance. Lage, H., Christmann, M., Kern, M.A., Dietel, M., Pick, M., Kaina, B., Schadendorf, D. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered expression of the DNA repair protein, N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) in human gonads. Kim, N.K., An, H.J., Kim, H.J., Sohn, T.J., Roy, R., Oh, D., Ahn, J.Y., Hwang, T.S., Cha, K.Y. Anticancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Novel genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes: O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) in lung cancer patients from Poland. Rusin, M., Samojedny, A., Harris, C.C., Chorazy, M. Hum. Mutat. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Using healthy life years (HeaLYs) to assess programming needs in a public health unit. Heale, J.D., Abernathy, T.J., Kittle, D. Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Familial and sociopsychopathological risk factors for suicide attempt in bulimic and in depressed women: prospective study. Nickel, M.K., Simek, M., Lojewski, N., Muehlbacher, M., Fartacek, R., Kettler, C., Bachler, E., Egger, C., Rother, N., Buschmann, W., Gil, F.P., Kaplan, P., Mitterlehner, F.O., Anvar, J., Rother, W.K., Loew, T.H., Nickel, C. The International journal of eating disorders. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormal RNA processing due to the exon mutation of beta E-globin gene. Orkin, S.H., Kazazian, H.H., Antonarakis, S.E., Ostrer, H., Goff, S.C., Sexton, J.P. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Suppression of the nonsense mutation in homozygous beta 0 thalassaemia. Chang, J.C., Temple, G.F., Trecartin, R.F., Kan, Y.W. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by native and desialised alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Costello, M., Fiedel, B.A., Gewurz, H. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a human cDNA encoding the DNA repair protein N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase. Chakravarti, D., Ibeanu, G.C., Tano, K., Mitra, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Imbalancing the DNA base excision repair pathway in the mitochondria; targeting and overexpressing N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase in mitochondria leads to enhanced cell killing. Fishel, M.L., Seo, Y.R., Smith, M.L., Kelley, M.R. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Ceramide attenuates hypoxic cell death via reactive oxygen species signaling. Lecour, S., Van der Merwe, E., Opie, L.H., Sack, M.N. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Transient adenoviral N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase overexpression imparts chemotherapeutic sensitivity to human breast cancer cells. Rinne, M., Caldwell, D., Kelley, M.R. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A comparative study of radioprotection by Ocimum flavonoids and synthetic aminothiol protectors in the mouse. Devi, P.U., Bisht, K.S., Vinitha, M. The British journal of radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Methylated DNA-binding domain 1 and methylpurine-DNA glycosylase link transcriptional repression and DNA repair in chromatin. Watanabe, S., Ichimura, T., Fujita, N., Tsuruzoe, S., Ohki, I., Shirakawa, M., Kawasuji, M., Nakao, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. 3-Methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (MPG protein) interacts with human RAD23 proteins. Miao, F., Bouziane, M., Dammann, R., Masutani, C., Hanaoka, F., Pfeifer, G., O'Connor, T.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Interaction of estrogen receptor alpha with 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase modulates transcription and DNA repair. Likhite, V.S., Cass, E.I., Anderson, S.D., Yates, J.R., Nardulli, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Magnesium, Essential for Base Excision Repair Enzymes, Inhibits Substrate Binding of N-Methylpurine-DNA Glycosylase. Adhikari, S., Toretsky, J.A., Yuan, L., Roy, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Treatment with temozolomide and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors induces early apoptosis and increases base excision repair gene transcripts in leukemic cells resistant to triazene compounds. Tentori, L., Turriziani, M., Franco, D., Serafino, A., Levati, L., Roy, R., Bonmassar, E., Graziani, G. Leukemia (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Lack of association between Caucasian lung cancer risk and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase-codon 178 genetic polymorphism. Yang, M., Coles, B.F., Caporaso, N.E., Choi, Y., Lang, N.P., Kadlubar, F.F. Lung Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Promoter structure and cell cycle dependent expression of the human methylpurine-DNA glycosylase gene. Bouziane, M., Miao, F., Bates, S.E., Somsouk, L., Sang, B.C., Denissenko, M., O'Connor, T.R. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction of the alkyltransferase (MGMT) gene by DNA damaging agents and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone and comparison with the response of base excision repair genes. Grombacher, T., Mitra, S., Kaina, B. Carcinogenesis (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the DNA repair enzyme, N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) in astrocytic tumors. Kim, N.K., Ahn, J.Y., Song, J., Kim, J.K., Han, J.H., An, H.J., Chung, H.M., Joo, J.Y., Choi, J.U., Lee, K.S., Roy, R., Oh, D. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase uses acid-base catalysis for selective excision of damaged purines. O'Brien, P.J., Ellenberger, T. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
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