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Gene Review

MEST  -  mesoderm specific transcript

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Mesoderm-specific transcript homolog protein, PEG1, Paternally-expressed gene 1 protein
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Disease relevance of MEST


Psychiatry related information on MEST


High impact information on MEST

  • To date, three imprinted genes-PEG1/MEST, gamma2-COP, and GRB10-have been identified on chromosome 7, but their role in the etiology of SRS remains uncertain [7].
  • The matUPD7 segment at 7q31-qter extends for 35 Mb and includes the imprinted gene cluster of PEG1/MEST and gamma2-COP at 7q32 [7].
  • Our results suggest that MESTIT1 is a paternally expressed non-coding RNA that may be involved in the regulation of MEST expression during development [8].
  • MEST isoform 1 was determined to be exclusively expressed from the paternal allele in all fetal tissues and cell lines examined, whereas MEST isoform 2 was only preferentially expressed from the paternal allele in a tissue/cell-type-specific manner [8].
  • Transcripts located between D7S530 and D7S649 (a 1.5 Mb interval encompassing MEST ) were subjected to RT-PCR analysis using somatic cell hybrids [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of MEST

  • These findings indicated that independent deregulation took place in imprinted genes and suggested that aberrant imprinting of IGF2 and MEST was involved in the development of lung adenocarcinoma [1].

Biological context of MEST


Anatomical context of MEST


Associations of MEST with chemical compounds

  • LOI of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) and mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST, also known as paternally expressed gene 1) was noted in 47% (seven of 15) and 85% (11 of 13) of informative cases, respectively [1].
  • Bisulfite conversion/sequencing indicates that the inter-individual differences reflect the relative representation of heavily methylated vs. unmethylated alleles, and RT-PCR/RFLP analysis shows strongly biased allelic expression of PEG1 isoform 2 mRNA in a majority of placentae with a high proportion of methylated alleles [15].

Regulatory relationships of MEST

  • PEG1/MEST is an imprinted gene on chromosome 7q32 that is expressed only from the paternal allele and is a candidate gene for SRS [17].

Other interactions of MEST

  • One hundred kilobases proximal to MEST lies a group of four carboxypeptidase A (CPA) genes [18].
  • The fact that COPG2 and TSGA14, both neighbors of MEST, escape genomic imprinting suggests that the 7q32 imprinted region may be small and not similar to other imprinted domains, such as those at 15q11-13 and 11p15.5 [10].
  • Since the COPG2IT1 gene in the vicinity of MEST has been reported to be imprinted, we presumed that TSGA14 might also be imprinted [10].
  • Two representative imprinted genes, H19 and MEST/PEG1, were studied [9].
  • Three of six genes analysed (SNRPN, PEG1 and UBE3A) are clearly expressed in preimplantation embryos [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MEST


  1. Frequent loss of imprinting of IGF2 and MEST in lung adenocarcinoma. Kohda, M., Hoshiya, H., Katoh, M., Tanaka, I., Masuda, R., Takemura, T., Fujiwara, M., Oshimura, M. Mol. Carcinog. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Unbalanced placental expression of imprinted genes in human intrauterine growth restriction. McMinn, J., Wei, M., Schupf, N., Cusmai, J., Johnson, E.B., Smith, A.C., Weksberg, R., Thaker, H.M., Tycko, B. Placenta (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Promoter switch: a novel mechanism causing biallelic PEG1/MEST expression in invasive breast cancer. Pedersen, I.S., Dervan, P., McGoldrick, A., Harrison, M., Ponchel, F., Speirs, V., Isaacs, J.D., Gorey, T., McCann, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Frequent loss of imprinting of PEG1/MEST in invasive breast cancer. Pedersen, I.S., Dervan, P.A., Broderick, D., Harrison, M., Miller, N., Delany, E., O'Shea, D., Costello, P., McGoldrick, A., Keating, G., Tobin, B., Gorey, T., McCann, A. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of the imprinted genes MEST/Mest in human and murine placenta suggests a role in angiogenesis. Mayer, W., Hemberger, M., Frank, H.G., Grümmer, R., Winterhager, E., Kaufmann, P., Fundele, R. Dev. Dyn. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. An imprinted PEG1/MEST antisense expressed predominantly in human testis and in mature spermatozoa. Li, T., Vu, T.H., Lee, K.O., Yang, Y., Nguyen, C.V., Bui, H.Q., Zeng, Z.L., Nguyen, B.T., Hu, J.F., Murphy, S.K., Jirtle, R.L., Hoffman, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. A narrow segment of maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7q31-qter in Silver-Russell syndrome delimits a candidate gene region. Hannula, K., Lipsanen-Nyman, M., Kontiokari, T., Kere, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and characterization of an imprinted antisense RNA (MESTIT1) in the human MEST locus on chromosome 7q32. Nakabayashi, K., Bentley, L., Hitchins, M.P., Mitsuya, K., Meguro, M., Minagawa, S., Bamforth, J.S., Stanier, P., Preece, M., Weksberg, R., Oshimura, M., Moore, G.E., Scherer, S.W. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Establishment of the paternal methylation imprint of the human H19 and MEST/PEG1 genes during spermatogenesis. Kerjean, A., Dupont, J.M., Vasseur, C., Le Tessier, D., Cuisset, L., Pàldi, A., Jouannet, P., Jeanpierre, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. The gene TSGA14, adjacent to the imprinted gene MEST, escapes genomic imprinting. Yamada, T., Kayashima, T., Yamasaki, K., Ohta, T., Yoshiura, K., Matsumoto, N., Fujimoto, S., Niikawa, N., Kishino, T. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The novel gene, gamma2-COP (COPG2), in the 7q32 imprinted domain escapes genomic imprinting. Yamasaki, K., Hayashida, S., Miura, K., Masuzaki, H., Ishimaru, T., Niikawa, N., Kishino, T. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Multipoint imprinting analysis in sporadic colorectal cancers with and without microsatellite instability. Nishihara, S., Hayashida, T., Mitsuya, K., Schulz, T.C., Ikeguchi, M., Kaibara, N., Oshimura, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Monoallelic expression of human PEG1/MEST is paralleled by parent-specific methylation in fetuses. Riesewijk, A.M., Hu, L., Schulz, U., Tariverdian, G., Höglund, P., Kere, J., Ropers, H.H., Kalscheuer, V.M. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutation screening and imprinting analysis of four candidate genes for autism in the 7q32 region. Bonora, E., Bacchelli, E., Levy, E.R., Blasi, F., Marlow, A., Monaco, A.P., Maestrini, E. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Imprinting of PEG1/MEST isoform 2 in human placenta. McMinn, J., Wei, M., Sadovsky, Y., Thaker, H.M., Tycko, B. Placenta (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Aberrant DNA methylation of imprinted loci in superovulated oocytes. Sato, A., Otsu, E., Negishi, H., Utsunomiya, T., Arima, T. Hum. Reprod. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. No evidence of PEG1/MEST gene mutations in Silver-Russell syndrome patients. Kobayashi, S., Uemura, H., Kohda, T., Nagai, T., Chinen, Y., Naritomi, K., Kinoshita, E.I., Ohashi, H., Imaizumi, K., Tsukahara, M., Sugio, Y., Tonoki, H., Kishino, T., Tanaka, T., Yamada, M., Tsutsumi, O., Niikawa, N., Kaneko-Ishino, T., Ishino, F. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The imprinted region on human chromosome 7q32 extends to the carboxypeptidase A gene cluster: an imprinted candidate for Silver-Russell syndrome. Bentley, L., Nakabayashi, K., Monk, D., Beechey, C., Peters, J., Birjandi, Z., Khayat, F.E., Patel, M., Preece, M.A., Stanier, P., Scherer, S.W., Moore, G.E. J. Med. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of imprinted genes in human preimplantation development. Monk, M., Salpekar, A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. A multiplex methylation PCR assay for identification of uniparental disomy of chromosome 7. Moore, M.W., Dietz, L.G., Tirtorahardjo, B., Cotter, P.D. Hum. Mutat. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. PEG1 expression in maternal uniparental disomy 7. Cuisset, L., Le Stunff, C., Dupont, J.M., Vasseur, C., Cartigny, M., Despert, F., Delpech, M., Bougnere, P., Jeanpierre, M. Ann. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
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