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Gene Review

REN  -  renin

Ovis aries

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Disease relevance of REN

  • Retraction. Systemic circulatory adjustments to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation in unanesthetized sheep. Role of renin, angiotensin II and catecholamine interactions [1].
  • Role of vagosympathetic fibers in the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, and renin responses to hemorrhage in fetal sheep [2].
  • Peripheral chemoreceptor control of fetal renin responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia [3].
  • Many of the factors that can affect fetal renal development (i.e. exposure to excess glucocorticoids, insufficient vitamin A, protein/calorie malnutrition (in rats) and alterations in the intrarenal renin angiotensinogen system), also produce hypertension in the adult animal [4].
  • Overall, the magnitude of the hypotension induced by GR138950, and the concomitant rise in plasma renin, both correlated with the plasma cortisol concentration before GR138950 treatment [5].

High impact information on REN

  • Intraventricular administration of supraphysiological amounts of renin, nerve growth factor preparation, or angiotensin II greatly increased the consumption of water and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution by sheep [6].
  • Since this is likely realized through renin/aldosterone-mediated salt and water retention, other body fluid compartments may be changed too [7].
  • Evidence was obtained that the increase in plasma volume was induced by a transient increase in renin (8.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol.l-1.h-1; P < 0.02) and aldosterone (0.51 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.09 nmol/liter) concentrations [7].
  • Changes in cardiac output, vascular pressures, blood flow distribution, arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2, and arterial levels of plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, bradykinin, and catecholamines were measured at selected time points [8].
  • Hypercapnia combined with hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of REN


Biological context of REN


Anatomical context of REN

  • Both groups of fetuses, however, responded to the hemorrhage with increases in fetal plasma ACTH, cortisol, and vasopressin concentrations and plasma renin activity that were not significantly different [2].
  • Thus ouabain alone does not stimulate renin secretion in the conscious, isovolemic sheep despite a presumed increase in [NaCl] at the macula densa and inhibition of NaCl transport by the loop of Henle [14].
  • Using hybridization histochemistry, a technique which localizes specific mRNA populations in tissue sections with a 700 base pair recombinant DNA probe which codes for ovine renin, we have localized renin gene expression in the afferent arteriole of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) in the sheep renal cortex [12].
  • Cardiac nerve blockade exaggerated the fetal blood gas response to haemorrhage somewhat but did not significantly alter the magnitude of the ACTH, AVP, or plasma renin activity response to haemorrhage [15].
  • Renin, angiotensinogen and ACE were identified in both meso- and metanephroi at 41 days but not in the mesonephros at 27 to 30 days [16].

Associations of REN with chemical compounds


Other interactions of REN

  • Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, we have measured the effect of chronic placental restriction (PR) on the renal expression of PG endoperoxide G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), PGE(2) receptors EP(2) and EP(4), and renin mRNA in the sheep fetus in late gestation [21].
  • This study was designed to test the hypothesis that cardiac receptors tonically inhibit the secretion of renin, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in late-gestation fetal sheep [15].
  • There was no change in plasma erythropoietin concentrations or plasma renin activity [22].
  • Renal cortical cells from animals receiving COX-2 inhibitor had significantly lower levels of renin mRNA compared with animals receiving only saline [23].
  • The apparently increased activity of the renin angiotensin system in this situation causes a reduction in renal blood flow, which is counteracted by angiotensin II AT1-receptor blockade [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of REN


  1. Retraction. Systemic circulatory adjustments to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation in unanesthetized sheep. Role of renin, angiotensin II and catecholamine interactions. Davidson, D., Stalcup, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of vagosympathetic fibers in the control of adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, and renin responses to hemorrhage in fetal sheep. Wood, C.E., Chen, H.G., Bell, M.E. Circ. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Peripheral chemoreceptor control of fetal renin responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Wood, C.E., Kane, C., Raff, H. Circ. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Kidney development and the fetal programming of adult disease. Moritz, K.M., Dodic, M., Wintour, E.M. Bioessays (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of cortisol on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in fetal sheep during late gestation. Forhead, A.J., Broughton Pipkin, F., Fowden, A.L. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Sodium appetite in sheep induced by cerebral ventricular infusion of angiotensin: comparison with sodium deficiency. Coghlan, J.P., Considine, P.J., Denton, D.A., Fei, D.T., Leksell, L.G., McKinley, M.J., Muller, A.F., Tarjan, E., Weisinger, R.S., Bradshaw, R.A. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Blood volume and body fluid compartments in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. Gratama, J.W., Dalinghaus, M., Meuzelaar, J.J., Gerding, A.M., Koers, J.H., Zijlstra, W.G., Kuipers, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Systemic circulatory adjustments to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation in unanesthetized sheep. Role of renin, angiotensin II, and catecholamine interactions. Davidson, D., Stalcup, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of frusemide, saralasin and hypotension on fetal plasma renin activity and on fetal renal function. Lumbers, E.R., Stevens, A.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Intrathecal clonidine and the response to hemorrhage. Eisenach, J.C., Tong, C., Limauro, D. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The sequence and tissue expression of ovine renin. Aldred, G.P., Fu, P., Crawford, R.J., Fernley, R.T. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Renin gene expression in vessels of the ovine renal cortex. Darby, I.A., Aldred, P., Crawford, R.J., Fernley, R.T., Niall, H.D., Penschow, J.D., Ryan, G.B., Coghlan, J.P. J. Hypertens. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Deoxycorticosterone acetate hypertension in the sheep. Mitchell, J., Ling, W.D., Bohr, D.F. J. Hypertens. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Renal function and renin secretion after administration of ouabain and ouabain plus furosemide in conscious sheep. Blaine, E.H., Zimmerman, M.B. Circ. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. The ovine fetal endocrine reflex responses to haemorrhage are not mediated by cardiac nerves. Wood, C.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Ontogeny of hormonal and excretory function of the meso- and metanephros in the ovine fetus. Wintour, E.M., Alcorn, D., Butkus, A., Congiu, M., Earnest, L., Pompolo, S., Potocnik, S.J. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Beneficial hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal effects of urocortin in experimental heart failure: comparison with normal sheep. Rademaker, M.T., Charles, C.J., Espiner, E.A., Fisher, S., Frampton, C.M., Kirkpatrick, C.M., Lainchbury, J.G., Nicholls, M.G., Richards, A.M., Vale, W.W. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of central losartan on plasma renin and centrally mediated natriuresis. McKinley, M.J., Evered, M., Mathai, M., Coghlan, J.P. Kidney Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of chronic cyclosporine administration on renal blood flow and intrarenal blood flow distribution. Youngelman, D.F., Kahng, K.U., Rosen, B.D., Dresner, L.S., Wait, R.B. Transplantation (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Renin, antidiuretic hormone and the kidney in water restriction and rehydration. Blair-West, J.R., Brook, A.H., Gibson, A., Morris, M., Pullan, P.T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Placental restriction increases the expression of prostaglandin endoperoxide G/H synthase-2 and EP2 mRNA in the fetal sheep kidney during late gestation. Williams, S.J., McMillen, I.C., Zaragoza, D.B., Olson, D.M. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Mild hypoxaemia does not alter red blood cell production in fetal sheep. Anderson, D.F., Binder, N.D., Clemons, G.K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2: effects on renin secretion and expression in fetal lambs. Mertz, H.L., Liu, J., Valego, N.K., Stallings, S.P., Figueroa, J.P., Rose, J.C. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Losartan increases renal blood flow during isoflurane anesthesia in sheep. Ullman, J., Eriksson, S., Rundgren, M. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Changes in fetal renal function in response to infusions of a hyperosmotic solution of mannitol to the ewe. Lumbers, E.R., Stevens, A.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasma renin, (Na+) and (K+) in immature foetal lambs with indwelling catheters. Carver, J.G., Mott, J.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1975) [Pubmed]
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