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Gene Review

DTL  -  denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CDT2, CDW1, DCAF2, DDB1-and CUL4-associated factor 2, Denticleless protein homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of DTL


High impact information on DTL

  • Our data indicate that the rereplication reflects a requirement for DTL in regulating CDT1, a protein required for prereplication complex formation [4].
  • Thus, DTL promotes genomic stability through two distinct mechanisms [4].
  • We show that DTL associates with the CUL4-DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and is required for CDT1 down-regulation in unperturbed cells and following DNA damage [4].
  • Here, we show that CUL4-DDB1 complexes interact with multiple WD40-repeat proteins (WDRs) including TLE1-3, WDR5, L2DTL (also known as CDT2) and the Polycomb-group protein EED (also known as ESC) [5].
  • In addition to nucleotide sequence, bioinformatic analysis has revealed a conservation of critical functional motifs among the human L2DTL, mouse L2dtl, and Drosophila l(2)dtl proteins [6].

Biological context of DTL


Anatomical context of DTL

  • Although the amplitude of the signal collected by the DTL electrode varies from session to session, this is not a problem, as the photoreceptor fractional circulating current is obtained by normalization of the response family [9].
  • A component with a latency that varied with distance from the optic nerve head was easily identified by eye in recordings from the speculum of a Burian-Allen electrode referenced to a DTL on the unstimulated eye [10].
  • DTL was shown to increase the proliferation of HeLa cells grown in soft agar greatly (in anchorage-independent fashion) [8].
  • Heaviest labelling occurred in the thin descending limb (DTL) of the loop of Henle in the inner stripe of the outer medulla, with apparent decreasing expression in the inner medulla, outer stripe of the outer medulla and cortex, but no quantitation was performed [11].
  • We used RT-PCR, immunostaining, Western blotting, and centrosome isolation to determine the L2DTL expression and protein localization, and RNAi to analyze its role in tumor cell growth [12].

Associations of DTL with chemical compounds

  • Using RNA fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction, we identified a novel serine/threonine-rich protein, RA-regulated nuclear matrix-associated protein (Ramp), that was down-regulated during the RA-induced differentiation of NT2 cells [1].
  • We found herein that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin, isolated from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum (DTL), alters the growth properties of HeLa tumor cells depending on the anchorage [8].
  • Previously we isolated GlcNAc-specific lectin (DTL) from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum by affinity chromatography on cross-linked ovalbumin [13].
  • Hapten inhibition with various sugars indicated that DTL requires the presence of hydroxyl groups at the C-3 and C-4 of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine [14].

Other interactions of DTL

  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The TLD consist of LiF powder type DTL 937 read with a PCL 3 automatic TLD reader [15].
  • Particularily we analyse those suggested by Nei (IS, DS), Rogers (DR), Reynolds, Weir and Cockerham (D theta), Nei, Tajima and Tateno (DA), Tomiuk and Loeschcke (ITL, DTL) and Goldstein et al [16].
  • A novel WD40 domain-containing protein, L2DTL/CDT2 and PCNA were identified as proteins associated with CUL4/DDB1 complexes [17].
  • L2DTL protein decreased in mitosis via degradation by the APC/C-Cdh1 complex [12].
  • L2DTL gene expression increased during G1/S phase, and the DNA synthesis in liver regeneration [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DTL


  1. Cloning and expression of a novel nuclear matrix-associated protein that is regulated during the retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. Cheung, W.M., Chu, A.H., Chu, P.W., Ip, N.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Photopic ERGs in patients with optic neuropathies: comparison with primate ERGs after pharmacologic blockade of inner retina. Rangaswamy, N.V., Frishman, L.J., Dorotheo, E.U., Schiffman, J.S., Bahrani, H.M., Tang, R.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Dose-finding study of docetaxel added to ifosfamide and cisplatin followed by concomitant capecitabine and radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Recchia, F., Saggio, G., Cesta, A., Amiconi, G., di Blasio, A., Candeloro, G., Valeriani, M., Tombolini, V., Rea, S. Anticancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. DTL/CDT2 is essential for both CDT1 regulation and the early G2/M checkpoint. Sansam, C.L., Shepard, J.L., Lai, K., Ianari, A., Danielian, P.S., Amsterdam, A., Hopkins, N., Lees, J.A. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase interacts with multiple WD40-repeat proteins and regulates histone methylation. Higa, L.A., Wu, M., Ye, T., Kobayashi, R., Sun, H., Zhang, H. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. L2dtl is essential for cell survival and nuclear division in early mouse embryonic development. Liu, C.L., Yu, I.S., Pan, H.W., Lin, S.W., Hsu, H.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphenes Electrically Evoked with DTL Electrodes: A Study in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa, Glaucoma, and Homonymous Visual Field Loss and Normal Subjects. Gekeler, F., Messias, A., Ottinger, M., Bartz-Schmidt, K.U., Zrenner, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of lectin from the ascidian on the growth and the adhesion of HeLa cells. Odintsova, N.A., Belogortseva, N.I., Khomenko, A.V., Chikalovets, I.V., Luk'yanov, P.A. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The a-wave of the human electroretinogram recorded with a minimally invasive technique. Smith, N.P., Lamb, T.D. Vision Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The optic nerve head component of the monkey's (Macaca mulatta) multifocal electroretinogram (mERG). Hood, D.C., Bearse, M.A., Sutter, E.E., Viswanathan, S., Frishman, L.J. Vision Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in the adult and developing sheep kidney. Butkus, A., Alcorn, D., Earnest, L., Moritz, K., Giles, M., Wintour, E.M. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of L2DTL, cell cycle-regulated nuclear and centrosome protein, in aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma. Pan, H.W., Chou, H.Y., Liu, S.H., Peng, S.Y., Liu, C.L., Hsu, H.C. Cell Cycle (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. New GlcNAc/GalNAc-specific lectin from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum. Molchanova, V., Chikalovets, I., Li, W., Kobelev, S., Kozyrevskaya, S., Bogdanovich, R., Howard, E., Belogortseva, N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific lectin from the ascidian Didemnum ternatanum. Belogortseva, N., Molchanova, V., Glazunov, V., Evtushenko, E., Luk'yanov, P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. The ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL). Ferreira, I.H., Dutreix, A., Bridier, A., Chavaudra, J., Svensson, H. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Population differentiation through mutation and drift--a comparison of genetic identity measures. Tomiuk, J., Guldbrandtsen, B., Loeschcke, V. Genetica (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. L2DTL/CDT2 and PCNA interact with p53 and regulate p53 polyubiquitination and protein stability through MDM2 and CUL4A/DDB1 complexes. Banks, D., Wu, M., Higa, L.A., Gavrilova, N., Quan, J., Ye, T., Kobayashi, R., Sun, H., Zhang, H. Cell Cycle (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. The scotopic threshold response of the dark-adapted electroretinogram of the mouse. Saszik, S.M., Robson, J.G., Frishman, L.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. An improved method for using the DTL fibre in electroretinography. Thompson, D.A., Drasdo, N. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Radiological image data migration. Practical experience and comparison of the costs of work. Maass, M., Kosonen, M., Kormano, M. Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Performance of the DTL electrode compared to the jet contact lens electrode in clinical testing. Yin, H., Pardue, M.T. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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