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Gene Review

PLXNA2  -  plexin A2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ11751, FLJ30634, KIAA0463, OCT, PLXN2, ...
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Disease relevance of PLXNA2

  • We have identified a bipartite-binding site for SOX/OCT heterodimers within the b1-ARE that accounts for its cell context-specific activity and is required for maximal transcriptional activity of HOX/PBX complexes in embryonal carcinoma cells [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution spectral-domain OCT provides unprecedented high-quality 2D and 3D in vivo visualization of retinal structures of mouse and rat models of retinal diseases [2].
  • A novel synthetic vitamin D(3)derivative, 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (OCT: oxacarcitriol) shows a more potent differentiation-inducing ability among myeloid leukemia cells in vitro with much lesser extent of the induction of hypercalcemia in vivo as compared to the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) [3].
  • CONCLUSION: PMIT is effective and safe for the treatment of refractory SHPT, and a locally high level of OCT suppresses PTH secretion and regresses parathyroid hyperplasia, which is involved in the induction of apoptosis of parathyroid cells [4].
  • Uremia does not affect the rate of clearance of OCT from the circulation (MCR: 56.8 +/- 4.5; t1/2 = 2.1 +/- 0.2 n = 4) [5].

High impact information on PLXNA2

  • Further screenings of cDNA libraries identified three additional sequences closely related to SEX: these were named SEP, OCT, and NOV and were located on human chromosomes 3p, 1, and 3q, respectively [6].
  • Northern blot analysis revealed different expression of the SEX family of genes in fetal tissues, with SEX, OCT, and NOV predominantly expressed in brain, and SEP expressed at highest levels in kidney [6].
  • OCA-B is a B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator for OCT factors during the activation of immunoglobulin genes [7].
  • When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, CT2 mediates the high affinity transport of l-carnitine but does not accept mainstream OCT/OCTN cationic or OAT anionic substrates [8].
  • The identification of CT2 represents an interesting evolutionary link between OCT/OCTNs and OATs, as well as provides us with an important insight into the maturation of human spermatozoa [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of PLXNA2


Biological context of PLXNA2


Anatomical context of PLXNA2

  • With regard to optic disc area, larger optic discs were associated with decreased sensitivity for the Stratus OCT parameter Average Thickness and the GDx VCC parameter Nerve Fiber Indicator, whereas small optic discs were associated with increased sensitivity [17].
  • RESULTS: PMIT and subsequent intravenous OCT administrations significantly decreased the serum intact-PTH level and parathyroid gland volume for at least 12 weeks after PMIT without major complications [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrahigh-resolution OCT demonstrates excellent visualization of intraretinal morphology and enables quantification of the photoreceptor layer [18].
  • Treatment of HL-60 cells with OCT for 72 h induces monocytic differentiation [3].
  • Additionally, we demonstrate that OCT-induced DNA fragmentation in this cell line is due to selective activation of a cation-insensitive acidic endonuclease [9].

Associations of PLXNA2 with chemical compounds

  • OCT as well as 1,25-(OH)2D3 inhibited the proliferation of MT-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner [16].
  • Our results show that Hoxa1 is the primary mediator of the response of b1-ARE to retinoic acid in vivo and that this function is dependent on the binding of SOX/OCT heterodimers to the b1-ARE [1].
  • Recently, the slow-release form of octreotide (OCT; Sandostatin LAR, OCT-LAR), for im injection every 28 days, was reported to induce suppression of GH levels below 7.5 mU/L (2.5 microg/L) in 39-75% of patients, and normalization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels for age in 64-88% of patients, with an excellent patients' compliance [19].
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on both cryostat sections of OCT-embedded tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue [20].
  • METHODS: In 20 patients with SHPT resistant to maxacalcitol (OCT) intravenously administered, all detectably enlarged parathyroid glands were treated by percutaneous maxacalcitol injection therapy (PMIT) under ultrasonographic guidance consecutively 6 times, which was followed by OCT that was intravenously administered [4].

Other interactions of PLXNA2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PLXNA2

  • Seventeen patients with presumed EAS based on inferior petrosal sinus sampling results underwent routine anatomical imaging studies [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and OCT scintigraphy with 6 mCi (L-OCT) [22].
  • We prospectively evaluated whether [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) or [(111)In]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-D-Phe-pentetreotide (OCT) at higher than standard doses of radionuclide (18 mCi; H-OCT), can detect these tumors [22].
  • PURPOSE: To demonstrate a new generation of three-dimensional (3-D) ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) technology for visualization of macular diseases [23].
  • CONCLUSIONS: OCT of the RNFL can efficiently identify vigabatrin-induced damage and will be useful for adults and children unable to perform perimetry and when the perimetric outcome is equivocal [24].
  • At one of two visits, the right eye of each participant underwent two digital imaging modalities: ocular coherence tomography (OCT; StratusOCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO; Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph; Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany) [24].


  1. The recruitment of SOX/OCT complexes and the differential activity of HOXA1 and HOXB1 modulate the Hoxb1 auto-regulatory enhancer function. Di Rocco, G., Gavalas, A., Popperl, H., Krumlauf, R., Mavilio, F., Zappavigna, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. In vivo three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of rodent retina with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ruggeri, M., Wehbe, H., Jiao, S., Gregori, G., Jockovich, M.E., Hackam, A., Duan, Y., Puliafito, C.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Combination of 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), a vitamin D(3) derivative, with vitamin K(2) (VK2) synergistically enhances cell differentiation but suppresses VK2-inducing apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Funato, K., Miyazawa, K., Yaguchi, M., Gotoh, A., Ohyashiki, K. Leukemia (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Percutaneous maxacalcitol injection therapy regresses hyperplasia of parathyroid and induces apoptosis in uremia. Shiizaki, K., Hatamura, I., Negi, S., Narukawa, N., Mizobuchi, M., Sakaguchi, T., Ooshima, A., Akizawa, T. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. On the mechanisms for the selective action of vitamin D analogs. Dusso, A.S., Negrea, L., Gunawardhana, S., Lopez-Hilker, S., Finch, J., Mori, T., Nishii, Y., Slatopolsky, E., Brown, A.J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. A family of transmembrane proteins with homology to the MET-hepatocyte growth factor receptor. Maestrini, E., Tamagnone, L., Longati, P., Cremona, O., Gulisano, M., Bione, S., Tamanini, F., Neel, B.G., Toniolo, D., Comoglio, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Interaction of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B and galectin-1 and a possible role in regulating BCR-mediated B cell proliferation. Yu, X., Siegel, R., Roeder, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular identification of a novel carnitine transporter specific to human testis. Insights into the mechanism of carnitine recognition. Enomoto, A., Wempe, M.F., Tsuchida, H., Shin, H.J., Cha, S.H., Anzai, N., Goto, A., Sakamoto, A., Niwa, T., Kanai, Y., Anders, M.W., Endou, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of wild-type p53, Bax, and acidic endonuclease during somatostatin-signaled apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Sharma, K., Srikant, C.B. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Lacrimal drainage-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT): a part of the human mucosal immune system. Knop, E., Knop, N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. One week triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin and tinidazole for Helicobacter pylori: differing efficacy in previously treated and untreated patients. Moshkowitz, M., Konikoff, F.M., Peled, Y., Brill, S., Hallak, A., Tiomny, E., Santo, M., Bujanover, Y., Gilat, T. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of vitamin D analog, 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), on bone reconstruction by vascularized bone allograft. Merida, L., Shigetomi, M., Ihara, K., Tsubone, T., Ikeda, K., Yamaguchi, A., Sugiyama, T., Kawai, S. Bone (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Binding of highly concentrated maxacalcitol to the nuclear vitamin D receptors of parathyroid cells. Shiizaki, K., Hayakawa, N., Imazeki, I., Hatamura, I., Okada, T., Negi, S., Sakaguchi, T., Shigematsu, T., Akizawa, T. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of the semaphorin receptor PLXNA2 as a candidate for susceptibility to schizophrenia. Mah, S., Nelson, M.R., Delisi, L.E., Reneland, R.H., Markward, N., James, M.R., Nyholt, D.R., Hayward, N., Handoko, H., Mowry, B., Kammerer, S., Braun, A. Mol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Association of PLXNA2 polymorphisms with vertebral fracture risk and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean population. Hwang, J.Y., Lee, J.Y., Park, M.H., Kim, K.S., Kim, K.K., Ryu, H.J., Lee, J.K., Han, B.G., Kim, J.W., Oh, B., Kimm, K., Park, B.L., Shin, H.D., Kim, T.H., Hong, J.M., Park, E.K., Kim, D.J., Koh, J.M., Kim, G.S., Kim, S.Y. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. 22-Oxacalcitriol, a noncalcemic analogue of calcitriol, suppresses both cell proliferation and parathyroid hormone-related peptide gene expression in human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type I-infected T cells. Inoue, D., Matsumoto, T., Ogata, E., Ikeda, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Influence of disease severity and optic disc size on the diagnostic performance of imaging instruments in glaucoma. Medeiros, F.A., Zangwill, L.M., Bowd, C., Sample, P.A., Weinreb, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Assessment of central visual function in Stargardt's disease/fundus flavimaculatus with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Ergun, E., Hermann, B., Wirtitsch, M., Unterhuber, A., Ko, T.H., Sattmann, H., Scholda, C., Fujimoto, J.G., Stur, M., Drexler, W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Cardiovascular effects of depot long-acting somatostatin analog Sandostatin LAR in acromegaly. Colao, A., Marzullo, P., Ferone, D., Spinelli, L., Cuocolo, A., Bonaduce, D., Salvatore, M., Boerlin, V., Lancranjan, I., Lombardi, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Alpha 2-macroglobulin production by the human endometrium. Sayegh, R., Awwad, J.T., Maxwell, C., Lessey, B., Isaacson, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Segregation of arterial and venous markers in subpopulations of blood islands before vessel formation. Herzog, Y., Guttmann-Raviv, N., Neufeld, G. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and [(111)In]-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-D-Phe-pentetreotide scintigraphy in the localization of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumors causing Cushing's syndrome. Pacak, K., Ilias, I., Chen, C.C., Carrasquillo, J.A., Whatley, M., Nieman, L.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases. Schmidt-Erfurth, U., Leitgeb, R.A., Michels, S., Povazay, B., Sacu, S., Hermann, B., Ahlers, C., Sattmann, H., Scholda, C., Fercher, A.F., Drexler, W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Detecting vigabatrin toxicity by imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Wild, J.M., Robson, C.R., Jones, A.L., Cunliffe, I.A., Smith, P.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
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