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Gene Review

Retnla  -  resistin like alpha

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1810019L16Rik, Cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-gamma, Cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ1, Fizz-1, Fizz1, ...
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Disease relevance of Retnla


High impact information on Retnla


Biological context of Retnla


Anatomical context of Retnla

  • From embryonic day (E)16 to postnatal day (P)28, HIMF was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of bronchial epithelial cells, type II cells, endothelial cells, and primitive mesenchymal cells [1].
  • In addition to expression of ChaFFs in the tissues, Ym1 and Fizz1 expression was observed in the lymph nodes [3].
  • Resistin and RELM-alpha mRNAs were both detectable in gonadal, subcutaneous, and mammary gland fat; mRNA level was highest in gonadal fat and lowest in mammary tissue [8].
  • RELM-alpha decreased gallbladder optimal tension, but did not alter responses to neurotransmitters [10].
  • However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown [11].

Associations of Retnla with chemical compounds

  • We note that RELM alpha lacks a cysteine residue, closest to the cleaved N terminus, that is present in resistin and RELM beta in multiple species [12].
  • In comparison, Wy-14,643 reduced adiponectin transcript levels by 31% (P = 0.015) while BRL-35135 increased RELMalpha mRNA expression by 245% (P < 0.001) without effect on the other transcripts [13].
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (10 micromol/L) inhibited HIMF-activated Akt phosphorylation [9].
  • Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses [11].
  • In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor [11].

Regulatory relationships of Retnla


Other interactions of Retnla

  • HIF-1alpha expression was temporally distinct from HIMF expression [1].
  • Thus, HIMF and HIF-2alpha were temporally and spatially coexpressed in the developing lung [1].
  • This study has examined the expression of the resistin and resistin-like molecule-alpha (RELM-alpha) genes in white adipose tissue of lactating mice [8].
  • Thus, the PI3K/Akt pathway, at least in part, mediates the proliferative effect of HIMF [9].
  • The activation status of macrophages was analyzed in this model of helminth infection by evaluating the expression of genetic markers of alternative activation, namely, Fizz1, Ym1, and Arg1 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Retnla

  • Results showed that HIMF is upregulated from Day 1 after pneumonectomy and peaking at Day 7 in the lung [15].
  • Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization showed that upregulated HIMF protein and mRNA are mainly distributed in airway epithelium, alveolar type II cells, and endothelial cells of the pulmonary vessels [15].
  • We found that the expression of Arg-1, Fizz1, and NOS-2 in adherent bronchoalveolar lavage cells was highly up-regulated 3 days after silica administration but returned to control levels during the fibrotic stage of the disease (60 days) [16].
  • Intravenous injection of HIMF also downregulated the expression of VEGFR2 in the lung [17].
  • Houston-1, 90-615, and SA2 strains showed the same patterns in SDS-PAGE, but they differed from the patterns of B. henselae isolates URBHLLY8, URBHLIE9, Cat6, Fizz, and CAL-1 [18].


  1. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor has antiapoptotic action and is upregulated in the developing lung: coexpression with hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha. Wagner, K.F., Hellberg, A.K., Balenger, S., Depping, R., Dodd-O, J., Johns, R.A., Li, D. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Cell type-specific expression and coregulation of murine resistin and resistin-like molecule-alpha in adipose tissue. Rajala, M.W., Lin, Y., Ranalletta, M., Yang, X.M., Qian, H., Gingerich, R., Barzilai, N., Scherer, P.E. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Chitinase and Fizz family members are a generalized feature of nematode infection with selective upregulation of Ym1 and Fizz1 by antigen-presenting cells. Nair, M.G., Gallagher, I.J., Taylor, M.D., Loke, P., Coulson, P.S., Wilson, R.A., Maizels, R.M., Allen, J.E. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor Promotes Vascular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression via the PI-3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B Signaling Pathway. Tong, Q., Zheng, L., Lin, L., Li, B., Wang, D., Li, D. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection. Loke, P., Zang, X., Hsuan, L., Waitz, R., Locksley, R.M., Allen, J.E., Allison, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A family of tissue-specific resistin-like molecules. Steppan, C.M., Brown, E.J., Wright, C.M., Bhat, S., Banerjee, R.R., Dai, C.Y., Enders, G.H., Silberg, D.G., Wen, X., Wu, G.D., Lazar, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by resistin-like molecule alpha. Biochemical characterization of its oligomeric nature. Blagoev, B., Kratchmarova, I., Nielsen, M.M., Fernandez, M.M., Voldby, J., Andersen, J.S., Kristiansen, K., Pandey, A., Mann, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Resistin and RELM-alpha gene expression in white adipose tissue of lactating mice. Bing, C., Gomez-Ambrosi, J., Zabalegui, N., Williams, G., Trayhurn, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. FIZZ1/RELMalpha, a novel hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor in lung with vasoconstrictive and angiogenic properties. Teng, X., Li, D., Champion, H.C., Johns, R.A. Circ. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Resistin-like molecule alpha reduces gallbladder optimal tension. Al-Azzawi, H.H., Mathur, A., Lu, D., Swartz-Basile, D.A., Nakeeb, A., Pitt, H.A. J. Gastrointest. Surg. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Tong, Q., Zheng, L., Li, B., Wang, D., Huang, C., Matuschak, G.M., Li, D. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Dimerization of resistin and resistin-like molecules is determined by a single cysteine. Banerjee, R.R., Lazar, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential regulation of adipocytokine mRNAs by rosiglitazone in db/db mice. Moore, G.B., Chapman, H., Holder, J.C., Lister, C.A., Piercy, V., Smith, S.A., Clapham, J.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Thioredoxin peroxidase secreted by Fasciola hepatica induces the alternative activation of macrophages. Donnelly, S., O'Neill, S.M., Sekiya, M., Mulcahy, G., Dalton, J.P. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Upregulation of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor in compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy. Li, D., Fernandez, L.G., Dodd-o, J., Langer, J., Wang, D., Laubach, V.E. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Markers of macrophage differentiation in experimental silicosis. Misson, P., van den Brûle, S., Barbarin, V., Lison, D., Huaux, F. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor has proangiogenic and proinflammatory effects in the lung via VEGF and VEGF receptor-2. Yamaji-Kegan, K., Su, Q., Angelini, D.J., Champion, H.C., Johns, R.A. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Genotypic characteristics of two serotypes of Bartonella henselae. La Scola, B., Liang, Z., Zeaiter, Z., Houpikian, P., Grimont, P.A., Raoult, D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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