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Gene Review

TBL1XR1  -  transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C21, DC42, F-box-like/WD repeat-containing protein TBL1XR1, FLJ12894, IRA1, ...
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Disease relevance of TBL1XR1

  • We have experimentally verified the presence of a previously unknown IRA1/RGS17 fusion in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 [1].
  • Thus, this study identified a second community with inherited male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, confirming the autosomal recessive inheritance of this condition and the generalized abnormality in both C19 and C21 steroid 5-alpha metabolism [2].
  • Previous studies led to the isolation of two overlapping cDNA clones that encode polypeptides of TPO (85 residues, C2; 100 residues, C21) recognized by sera from several patients with autoimmune disease that contained antimicrosomal autoantibodies [3].
  • In contrast with Clostridium limosum exoenzyme, component C21 of the Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, which ADP-ribosylates G-actin, depolymerized basal F-actin and inhibited N-formyl-peptide-induced actin polymerization in electropermeabilized HL60 cells [4].
  • Serum concentrations of 17OH-progesterone were studied serially over 24 hours in 13 treated and untreated patients with the C21 hydroxylase form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia [5].

Psychiatry related information on TBL1XR1

  • The e6G4-C21 base pair has a configuration similar to a normal Watson-Crick base pair, except with one three-centered hydrogen bond pair and one direct hydrogen bond between e6G4 and C21 [6].

High impact information on TBL1XR1

  • Although SMRT derepression corresponds with the recruitment of TBL1/TBLR1, this complex alone is insufficient to relieve repression [7].
  • Certain C19 and C21 steroid metabolites, when incubated with normal human bone marrow cells in culture, increased the number of erythroid colonies in the presence of erythropoietin [8].
  • By using specific small interference RNAs (siRNAs), we demonstrate that HDAC3 is essential, whereas TBL1 and TBLR1 are functionally redundant but essential for repression by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor [9].
  • The e6G4-C21 base pair has a configuration similar to a normal Watson-Crick base pair, except with bifurcated hydrogen bonds between e6G4 and C21, and the ethyl group is in the proximal orientation [10].
  • The fusion gene encodes the full-length RGS17 protein, a regulator of G protein-coupled signaling, under the control of the IRA1 gene promoter [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of TBL1XR1


Biological context of TBL1XR1


Anatomical context of TBL1XR1

  • Here, we used the frog oocyte system to demonstrate that unliganded TR interacts with TBLR1 and recruits TBLR1 to its chromatinized target promoter in vivo, accompanied by histone deacetylation and gene repression [18].
  • In contrast, the metabolizable C19 and C21 steroids, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, which inhibited the conversion of E1 to E2 by microsomes, stimulated E2 formation from E1 by villi [19].
  • The control follicles incubated at 1500 h produced steroids in nanogram amounts and the granulosa cells in vitro now produced C21 steroids, especially P4 [20].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone (NET), which represent the two different classes of C21- and C19-progestogens, respectively, was investigated on proliferation of smooth muscle cells from human coronary artery in vitro [21].
  • This suggests that the atrophic testes of these animals may have a limited capacity to produce biologically significant amounts of androgens from C21 steroids [22].

Associations of TBL1XR1 with chemical compounds

  • Cytochrome p450c17 (CYP17) converts the C21 steroids pregnenolone and progesterone to the C19 androgen precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively, via sequential 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase reactions [23].
  • The chiral phosphono acetate method was used for the highly stereoselective attachment of the alpha-side chain to the bicyclic C6-C21 intermediate carrying a carbonyl group at C6 [24].
  • Searches for natural ligands have revealed that the PXRs are activated by C21 steroids, including pregnenolone and progesterone, suggesting that these orphan receptors define a novel steroid hormone signaling pathway [25].
  • Recombinant mutant type II 3 beta HSD enzyme carrying the Y254D substitution exhibits no detectable activity with C21 delta 5-steroid pregnenolone or C19 delta 5-steroid dehydroepiandrosterone used as substrate [26].
  • These metabolites are not the products of the enzyme reaction catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 steroid 6 alpha-hydroxylase of human liver (and other tissues), which affects the 6 alpha-hydroxylation of C19- and C21-delta 4-3-ketosteroids (e.g., progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol), but does not act upon 5 alpha-reduced steroids [27].

Other interactions of TBL1XR1

  • TBLR1 co-precipitates with SMRT, a co-repressor of nuclear hormone receptors, and co-precipitates in complexes immunoprecipitated by antiserum to HDAC3 [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TBL1XR1

  • Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that both oncoproteins recruit TBLR1, as well as N-CoR, to its target promoter, leading to histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression [29].
  • The urinary 5 beta/5 alpha ring A-reduced metabolites of C19 and C21 steroids from obligate carrier parents of male pseudohermaphrodites with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency were analyzed by gas chromatography [30].
  • The steroidogenic characteristics of primary testicular cell cultures from adult hypophysectomized rats: enhanced formation of C21 steroids [31].
  • Correlation between binding affinities of C21 steroids for the maturation-inducing steroid membrane receptor in spotted seatrout ovaries and their agonist and antagonist activities in an oocyte maturation bioassay [32].
  • One such antiserum was studied in detail; cross-reactivity with other C21 steroids normally present in human plasma was negligible and it proved possible to establish a radioimmunoassay which satisfied all criteria of reliability [33].


  1. Finding fusion genes resulting from chromosome rearrangement by analyzing the expressed sequence databases. Hahn, Y., Bera, T.K., Gehlhaus, K., Kirsch, I.R., Pastan, I.H., Lee, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Familial male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in a Turkish village. Akgun, S., Ertel, N.H., Imperato-McGinley, J., Sayli, B.S., Shackleton, C. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Thyroperoxidase, but not the thyrotropin receptor, contains sequential epitopes recognized by autoantibodies in recombinant peptides expressed in the pUEX vector. Libert, F., Ludgate, M., Dinsart, C., Vassart, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. ADP-ribosylation of the GTP-binding protein Rho by Clostridium limosum exoenzyme affects basal, but not N-formyl-peptide-stimulated, actin polymerization in human myeloid leukaemic (HL60) cells. Koch, G., Norgauer, J., Aktories, K. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. The application of a serum 17OH-progesterone radioimmunoassay to the diagnosis and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hughes, I.A., Winter, J.S. J. Pediatr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural consequences of a carcinogenic alkylation lesion on DNA: effect of O6-ethylguanine on the molecular structure of the d(CGC[e6G]AATTCGCG)-netropsin complex. Sriram, M., van der Marel, G.A., Roelen, H.L., van Boom, J.H., Wang, A.H. Biochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. SMRT derepression by the IkappaB kinase alpha: a prerequisite to NF-kappaB transcription and survival. Hoberg, J.E., Yeung, F., Mayo, M.W. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of steroid hormone metabolites on the in vitro development of erythroid colonies derived from human bone marrow. Urabe, A., Sassa, S., Kappas, A. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification and functional characterization of the human N-CoR complex: the roles of HDAC3, TBL1 and TBLR1. Yoon, H.G., Chan, D.W., Huang, Z.Q., Li, J., Fondell, J.D., Qin, J., Wong, J. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Conformation of B-DNA containing O6-ethyl-G-C base pairs stabilized by minor groove binding drugs: molecular structure of d(CGC[e6G]AATTCGCG complexed with Hoechst 33258 or Hoechst 33342. Sriram, M., van der Marel, G.A., Roelen, H.L., van Boom, J.H., Wang, A.H. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Phospholipids and a novel glycine-containing lipoamino acid in Cytophaga johnsonae Stanier strain C21. Kawazoe, R., Okuyama, H., Reichardt, W., Sasaki, S. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. A new method of screening for inherited disorders of galactose metabolism. Paigen, K., Pacholec, F., Levy, H.L. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular analysis of TBL1Y, a Y-linked homologue of TBL1X related with X-linked late-onset sensorineural deafness. Yan, H.T., Shinka, T., Kinoshita, K., Sato, Y., Umeno, M., Chen, G., Tsuji, K., Unemi, Y., Yang, X.J., Iwamoto, T., Nakahori, Y. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A three-dimensional model of hepatitis delta virus ribozyme based on biochemical and mutational analyses. Tanner, N.K., Schaff, S., Thill, G., Petit-Koskas, E., Crain-Denoyelle, A.M., Westhof, E. Curr. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. 5 alpha-reductase and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in prepubertal Hispanic girls with premature adrenarche. Silfen, M.E., Shackleton, C.H., Manibo, A.M., Levine, L.S., Sekhar, D., McMahon, D.J., Oberfield, S.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Short-term effects of high dose oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone density in premenopausal women. Cundy, T., Farquhar, C.M., Cornish, J., Reid, I.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Interrelationships of circulating maternal steroid concentrations in third trimester pregnancies. I. C21 steroids: progesterone, 16 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, delta 5-pregnenolone, delta 5-pregnenolone sulfate, and 17-hydroxy delta 5-pregnenolone. Buster, J.E., Chang, R.J., Preston, D.L., Elashoff, R.M., Cousins, L.M., Abraham, G.E., Hobel, C.J., Marshall, J.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT-TBLR1 corepressor complex by unliganded thyroid hormone receptor for gene repression during frog development. Tomita, A., Buchholz, D.R., Shi, Y.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Steroid modulation of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activities in human placental villi in vitro. Blomquist, C.H., Lindemann, N.J., Hakanson, E.Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of treatment with cycloheximide at proestrus on subsequent in vitro follicular steroidogenesis in the hamster. Greenwald, G.S., Limback, D. Biol. Reprod. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone on serum-stimulated and estradiol-inhibited proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Seeger, H., Wallwiener, D., Mueck, A.O. Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone and cortisol on pituitary and testicular function in male golden hamsters with gonadal atrophy induced by short photoperiods. Bartke, A., Klemcke, H., Amador, A. J. Endocrinol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. CYP17 mutation E305G causes isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency by selectively altering substrate binding. Sherbet, D.P., Tiosano, D., Kwist, K.M., Hochberg, Z., Auchus, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Asymmetric synthesis of the highly potent anti-metastatic prostacyclin analogue cicaprost and its isomer isocicaprost. Lerm, M., Gais, H.J., Cheng, K., Vermeeren, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The PPARs and PXRs: nuclear xenobiotic receptors that define novel hormone signaling pathways. Kliewer, S.A., Lehmann, J.M., Milburn, M.V., Willson, T.M. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Detection and functional characterization of the novel missense mutation Y254D in type II 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) gene of a female patient with nonsalt-losing 3 beta HSD deficiency. Sanchez, R., Rhéaume, E., Laflamme, N., Rosenfield, R.L., Labrie, F., Simard, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Metabolism of 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone in women and men: 3 beta- and 3 alpha-,6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-ones are major urinary metabolites. Chantilis, S., Dombroski, R., Shackleton, C.H., Casey, M.L., MacDonald, P.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. TBLR1 regulates the expression of nuclear hormone receptor co-repressors. Zhang, X.M., Chang, Q., Zeng, L., Gu, J., Brown, S., Basch, R.S. BMC Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Fusion protein of retinoic acid receptor alpha with promyelocytic leukemia protein or promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein recruits N-CoR-TBLR1 corepressor complex to repress transcription in vivo. Tomita, A., Buchholz, D.R., Obata, K., Shi, Y.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Decreased urinary C19 and C21 steroid 5 alpha-metabolites in parents of male pseudohermaphrodites with 5 alpha-reductase deficiency: detection of carriers. Imperato-McGinley, J., Peterson, R.E., Gautier, T., Arthur, A., Shackleton, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. The steroidogenic characteristics of primary testicular cell cultures from adult hypophysectomized rats: enhanced formation of C21 steroids. Payne, D.W., Holtzclaw, W.D., Adashi, E.Y. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Correlation between binding affinities of C21 steroids for the maturation-inducing steroid membrane receptor in spotted seatrout ovaries and their agonist and antagonist activities in an oocyte maturation bioassay. Thomas, P., Das, S. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Some observations on the determination of cortisol in human plasma by radioimmunoassay using antisera against cortisol-3-BSA. Fahmy, D., Read, G.F., Hillier, S.G. Steroids (1975) [Pubmed]
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