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Gene Review

RETNLB  -  resistin like beta

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CCRG, Colon and small intestine-specific cysteine-rich protein, Colon carcinoma-related gene protein, Cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 1, Cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ2, ...
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Disease relevance of RETNLB


High impact information on RETNLB

  • RESULTS: Messenger RNA for RELMbeta is restricted to the undifferentiated, proliferating colonic epithelium [5].
  • METHODS: The regulation of RELMbeta messenger RNA expression was determined in LS174T, Caco-2, and HT-29 cell lines in response to stimulation with interleukin 13 and lipopolysaccharide [5].
  • Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the expression of RELMbeta in BALB/c and C.B17.SCID mice housed in conventional, germ-free, and gnotobiotic environments [5].
  • FIZZ1, a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein associated with pulmonary inflammation, defines a new gene family [1].
  • Murine (m) FIZZ1 is the founding member of a new gene family including two other murine genes expressed, respectively, in intestinal crypt epithelium and white adipose tissue, and two related human genes [1].

Biological context of RETNLB

  • Murine mXCP1, mXCP2 and mXCP3 genes map to murine chromosome 16 and mXCP4 is positioned on chromosome 8; the hXCP1 and hXCP2 genes are located at homologous regions of chromosomes 3 and 19 [6].
  • Induction of FIZZ2 gene expression most likely occurs independent of a direct effect by these cytokines and may be due to indirect STAT6-driven mechanisms [7].
  • The promoter region of FIZZ1 contains functional binding sites for STAT6 and C/EBP [7].
  • Point mutations in the STAT6 or the C/EBP site led to loss of cytokine responsiveness indicating that IL-4-mediated induction of murine FIZZ1 is orchestrated by the coordinate action of STAT6 and C/EBP [7].
  • Upon transfection of a RELMbeta encoding expression plasmid into these cells, we observed significant induction of proliferation particularly in SMC and A549 cells, which could be blocked by phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin [2].

Anatomical context of RETNLB


Associations of RETNLB with chemical compounds

  • It is concluded that the expression of the genes encoding FIZZ1 and FIZZ2, but not FIZZ3, is induced in allergen-challenged lungs in a STAT6-dependent fashion [7].
  • Besides the earlier documented markers, macrophage mannose receptor and arginase 1, we demonstrated recently that murine aaMF are characterized by increased expression of found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1) and the secretory lectin Ym [9].
  • The rate of lactate production was found to be relatively uniform over a range of cataract severities which were determined from the CCRG classification [10].
  • An interesting correlation was also observed between the degree of light scatter as determined by the 290-nm excitation peak for intrinsic lens tryptophan fluorescence and the CCRG (photographic) appearance of these cataractous lenses [11].

Other interactions of RETNLB

  • Macrophages from CCR4(-/-) mice exhibited many features consistent with alternative activation, including elevated secretion of type 2 cytokines/chemokines and the found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1) protein [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RETNLB


  1. FIZZ1, a novel cysteine-rich secreted protein associated with pulmonary inflammation, defines a new gene family. Holcomb, I.N., Kabakoff, R.C., Chan, B., Baker, T.W., Gurney, A., Henzel, W., Nelson, C., Lowman, H.B., Wright, B.D., Skelton, N.J., Frantz, G.D., Tumas, D.B., Peale, F.V., Shelton, D.L., Hébert, C.C. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Human RELMbeta is a mitogenic factor in lung cells and induced in hypoxia. Renigunta, A., Hild, C., Rose, F., Klepetko, W., Grimminger, F., Seeger, W., Hänze, J. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Bioinformatics-based discovery of a novel factor with apparent specificity to colon cancer. De Young, M.P., Damania, H., Scheurle, D., Zylberberg, C., Narayanan, R. In Vivo (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Innate immune responses to lung-stage helminth infection induce alternatively activated alveolar macrophages. Reece, J.J., Siracusa, M.C., Scott, A.L. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Bacterial colonization leads to the colonic secretion of RELMbeta/FIZZ2, a novel goblet cell-specific protein. He, W., Wang, M.L., Jiang, H.Q., Steppan, C.M., Shin, M.E., Thurnheer, M.C., Cebra, J.J., Lazar, M.A., Wu, G.D. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of murine and human XCP1 genes as C/EBP-epsilon-dependent members of FIZZ/Resistin gene family. Chumakov, A.M., Kubota, T., Walter, S., Koeffler, H.P. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The Th2 cell cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 regulate found in inflammatory zone 1/resistin-like molecule alpha gene expression by a STAT6 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-dependent mechanism. Stütz, A.M., Pickart, L.A., Trifilieff, A., Baumruker, T., Prieschl-Strassmayr, E., Woisetschläger, M. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Adiponectin and resistin--new hormones of white adipose tissue. Bełtowski, J. Med. Sci. Monit. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Macrophage galactose-type C-type lectins as novel markers for alternatively activated macrophages elicited by parasitic infections and allergic airway inflammation. Raes, G., Brys, L., Dahal, B.K., Brandt, J., Grooten, J., Brombacher, F., Vanham, G., Noël, W., Bogaert, P., Boonefaes, T., Kindt, A., Van den Bergh, R., Leenen, P.J., De Baetselier, P., Ghassabeh, G.H. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose metabolism by human cataracts in culture. Wolfe, J.K., Chylack, L.T. Exp. Eye Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Photographic and spectroscopic correlations of human cataracts. Lerman, S., Moran, M., Matthews, N. Ophthalmic Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. CCR4 Is a Key Modulator of Innate Immune Responses. Ness, T.L., Ewing, J.L., Hogaboam, C.M., Kunkel, S.L. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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