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Gene Review

KALRN  -  kalirin, RhoGEF kinase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARHGEF24, CHD5, CHDS5, DUET, DUO, ...
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Disease relevance of KALRN


High impact information on KALRN

  • Overexpression of dominant-negative EphB receptor, catalytically inactive kalirin, or dominant-negative Rac1, or inhibition of PAK eliminates ephrin-induced spine development [6].
  • A dynamic duo of microtubule modulators [7].
  • PAM-CD interactor proteins include a protein kinase that phosphorylates PAM (P-CIP2) and Kalirin, a Rho family GDP/GTP exchange factor [8].
  • Induction of lamellipodia by Kalirin does not require its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity [9].
  • Adolescents with PCOS (n = 32; age, approximately 15 yr; body mass index, approximately 22 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive the oral contraceptive (OC) ethinylestradiol-drospirenone, or the low-dose generic duo of flutamide (62.5 mg/d) plus metformin (850 mg/d) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of KALRN


Biological context of KALRN

  • For Kalirin, numerous isoforms containing different combinations of functional domains are generated through alternative splicing and use of alternative transcriptional start sites [13].
  • The kinase domain of Duet shows a homology to that of DAP kinase that is involved in apoptosis, and Duet is autophosphorylated by an in-vitro kinase assay [14].
  • Additionally, the vector duo allows co-propagation of different transgenes as well as mobilization of a third replication-defective vector [15].
  • Two a priori probabilities were calculated for each VNTR locus separately and for all eight loci jointly: (i) the "power of exclusion" for an alleged father/mother/child trio and for an alleged parent/child duo, and (ii) the "probability of matching" when two unrelated individuals or two siblings are genotyped [16].
  • This activation, which is spatially and temporally regulated, allows Kalirin to influence neurite initiation, axonal growth, and dendritic morphogenesis [17].

Anatomical context of KALRN

  • Trad mRNA is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle [14].
  • The cytosol was then fractionated on a duo-gel column of G-50 Sephadex over Bio-gel A 1.5m and fractions counted for 3H, assayed for protein and plotted graphically [18].
  • A dangerous duo? A combination of common diet drugs (fen-phen) may lead to heart valve disease [19].
  • A randomized trial comparing the hand-mounted JoStent with the premounted Multi-Link Duet stent in patients with coronary artery disease [20].
  • The specific objective of this experiment was to investigate the possible interrelationship between RAW and human monocyte/macrophage cells at the biochemical and morphological level after being in contact with three different dental cement ionomers (Fuji Duet, Fuji IX, and GC-Fuji-Ortho, GC America Inc., Chicago IL) for 72 hours [21].

Associations of KALRN with chemical compounds

  • We show here the identification of Duet, a novel molecule bearing serine/threonine kinase, Dbl-Homology (DH), and Pleckstrin-Homology (PH) domains [14].
  • Dopamine and prolactin--an imperfect duo in circadian rhythmicity [22].
  • Routine, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour samples were used and sections were stained immunohistochemically using the Duet StreptABC method [23].
  • L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors: a determinant duo for short-term nociceptive plasticity [24].
  • Four hundred and six patients underwent stent implantation for single discrete coronary artery lesion: 105 received a 16 mm Paragon stent, 112 an 18 mm Multilink Duet, 97 a 16 mm NIR Primo stent, and 92 a 15 or 18 mm NIR Royal Advance [25].
  • KALRN is a protein with many functions, including the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanine-exchange-factor activity [26].

Physical interactions of KALRN

  • RESULTS: iNOS interacts with the inhibitory molecules Kalirin and NOS-associated protein 1.10 kd (NAP110), which inhibit iNOS homodimerization, as well as activator proteins, the Rac-GTPases [27].

Other interactions of KALRN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KALRN

  • Ten seroconversions were detected an average of 8.1 days earlier with HIV DUO and 7.5 days earlier with HIV Combi than with the third-generation ELISA [11].
  • In conclusion, VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra can replace single-antigen screening for laboratory diagnosis and screening of HIV infection in blood donors [28].
  • HIV antigen was detected with HIV DUO and HIV Combi in all of the 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, including subtype O [11].
  • The VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra, a fourth-generation immunoassay under development for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2, was evaluated [29].
  • The subjects practiced the procedure described, directed toward self-care and mutual aid facilitated and supported by the duo, in a series of ten 2-hour weekly sessions [30].


  1. BDNF and 5-HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders. Mattson, M.P., Maudsley, S., Martin, B. Trends Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and gram-negative sepsis: a deadly duo. Fallat, R.J., Mielke, C.H., Rodvien, R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Stem cells in unstable angina: the dynamic duo. Perera, D., Kanaganayagam, G., Marber, M. Eur. Heart J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. A merging duo in melanoma formation. Rodolfo, M., Pierotti, M.A., Parmiani, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Chimerism testing and detection of minimal residual disease after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation using the bioView (Duet) combined morphological and cytogenetical analysis. Shimoni, A., Nagler, A., Kaplinsky, C., Reichart, M., Avigdor, A., Hardan, I., Yeshurun, M., Daniely, M., Zilberstein, Y., Amariglio, N., Brok-Simoni, F., Rechavi, G., Trakhtenbrot, L. Leukemia (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Rapid induction of dendritic spine morphogenesis by trans-synaptic ephrinB-EphB receptor activation of the Rho-GEF kalirin. Penzes, P., Beeser, A., Chernoff, J., Schiller, M.R., Eipper, B.A., Mains, R.E., Huganir, R.L. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A dynamic duo of microtubule modulators. Heald, R. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Signaling mediated by the cytosolic domain of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase. Alam, M.R., Steveson, T.C., Johnson, R.C., Bäck, N., Abraham, B., Mains, R.E., Eipper, B.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of lamellipodia by Kalirin does not require its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity. Schiller, M.R., Blangy, A., Huang, J., Mains, R.E., Eipper, B.A. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Ethinylestradiol-drospirenone, flutamide-metformin, or both for adolescents and women with hyperinsulinemic hyperandrogenism: opposite effects on adipocytokines and body adiposity. Ibáñez, L., de Zegher, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Reduction of diagnostic window by new fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus screening assays. Weber, B., Fall, E.H., Berger, A., Doerr, H.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Propylene glycol interference in the Vidas HIV DUO assay. Ferrer-Cañabate, J., Agulló-Ortuño, T., García-Mancebo, M.L., Real-Panisello, M., Martínez-Hernández, P., Noguera-Velasco, J.A. Clin. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Genomic organization and differential expression of Kalirin isoforms. McPherson, C.E., Eipper, B.A., Mains, R.E. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Duet is a novel serine/threonine kinase with Dbl-Homology (DH) and Pleckstrin-Homology (PH) domains. Kawai, T., Sanjo, H., Akira, S. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of a semi-replicative gene delivery system allowing propagation of complementary defective retroviral vectors. Trajcevski, S., Solly, S.K., Frisén, C., Trenado, A., Cosset, F.L., Klatzmann, D. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of eight VNTR loci by agarose gel electrophoresis. Odelberg, S.J., Plaetke, R., Eldridge, J.R., Ballard, L., O'Connell, P., Nakamura, Y., Leppert, M., Lalouel, J.M., White, R. Genomics (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Kalirin: a dual Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is so much more than the sum of its many parts. Rabiner, C.A., Mains, R.E., Eipper, B.A. The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence for a specific dihydrotestosterone-binding cytosol receptor in the human prostate. Geller, J., Cantor, T., Albert, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. A dangerous duo? A combination of common diet drugs (fen-phen) may lead to heart valve disease. Boughner, D.R. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. A randomized trial comparing the hand-mounted JoStent with the premounted Multi-Link Duet stent in patients with coronary artery disease. Mehilli, J., Kastrati, A., Dirschinger, J., Dotzer, F., Schühlen, H., Fleckenstein, M., Neumann, F.J., Schömig, A. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Exposure of transformed and non-transformed phagocytic cells to novel glass ionomers in culture. Thrash, A., Puckett, A., Tucci, M., Read, K., Roberts, B., Benghuzzi, H. Biomedical sciences instrumentation. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Dopamine and prolactin--an imperfect duo in circadian rhythmicity. Ben-Jonathan, N. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. c-erbB-4 protein expression in human breast cancer. Kew, T.Y., Bell, J.A., Pinder, S.E., Denley, H., Srinivasan, R., Gullick, W.J., Nicholson, R.I., Blamey, R.W., Ellis, I.O. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors: a determinant duo for short-term nociceptive plasticity. Fossat, P., Sibon, I., Le Masson, G., Landry, M., Nagy, F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Acute stent recoil: in vivo evaluation of different stent designs. Danzi, G., Fiocca, L., Capuano, C., Predolini, S., Quaini, E. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Peakwide mapping on chromosome 3q13 identifies the kalirin gene as a novel candidate gene for coronary artery disease. Wang, L., Hauser, E.R., Shah, S.H., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Haynes, C., Crosslin, D., Harris, M., Nelson, S., Hale, A.B., Granger, C.B., Haines, J.L., Jones, C.J., Crossman, D., Seo, D., Gregory, S.G., Kraus, W.E., Goldschmidt-Clermont, P.J., Vance, J.M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Protein-protein interactions involving inducible nitric oxide synthase. Zhang, W., Kuncewicz, T., Yu, Z.Y., Zou, L., Xu, X., Kone, B.C. Acta Physiol. Scand. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of a new combined antigen and antibody human immunodeficiency virus screening assay, VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra. Weber, B., Berger, A., Rabenau, H., Doerr, H.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus antigen and antibody. Saville, R.D., Constantine, N.T., Cleghorn, F.R., Jack, N., Bartholomew, C., Edwards, J., Gomez, P., Blattner, W.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Group therapy of psoriasis. Duo formula group treatment (DFGT) as an example. Schulte, M.B., Cormane, R.H., van Dijk, E., Wuite, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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