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Gene Review

fliM  -  flagellar motor switching and energizing...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1943, JW1929, cheC2, flaA, flaAII, ...
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Disease relevance of fliM


High impact information on fliM

  • To facilitate kinetic and genetic studies, a phenotypic reporter of virulence was engineered by fusing flaA promoter sequences to a gene encoding green fluorescent protein [6].
  • The V. parahaemolyticus polar flaC flagellin gene was poorly expressed in Escherichia coli Production of FlaC was stimulated by provision of the flaA locus in trans [3].
  • Expression in a non-motile S. typhimurium fliN mutant restores motility but not chemotaxis, although expression in a non-motile E. coli fliM mutant does not restore motility [7].
  • We cloned 17 fliM mutants, each defective in switching and having a point mutation at a different location, and then overexpressed and purified their products [8].
  • However, we were unable to determine the nucleotide sequence of flaA upstream of amino acid 10 [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of fliM

  • Cloning and sequence analysis of flaA, a gene encoding a Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament surface antigen [10].
  • In this study, hemodynamic function, plasma renin activity (PRA), AII, prostacyclin (PGI2), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) levels were measured in 17-20-day-old dogs before and 1, 2, and 3 hr after endotoxin administration (1 mg/kg, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-B) [11].

Biological context of fliM


Anatomical context of fliM

  • No analogs to the bacterial chemotactic and motility (che, mot, fla) genes, genes for a two-component signal transduction system, genes associated with gliding, or genomic homologs for the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and motor proteins were found in the Mollicutes [14].

Associations of fliM with chemical compounds

  • Recombinant apoAIV complex with Myr2GroPCho was also able to bind to the same apoAI/AII receptor sites and to promote cholesterol efflux to an equal extent from adipose cells [15].
  • Forms AI and AII are separated on a phosphocellulose column, purified by further ion-exchange chromatography, and by sedimentation through a glycerol gradient [16].
  • RESULTS: Amplicons bearing 500 or 150 bp flanking regions of flaA on each side (depending on the strain) were sufficient to allow the specific insertion of a 1173 bp chloramphenicol cassette into the genome of H. pylori [17].
  • It was found that transcription of genes responsible for the formation and/or function of flagella (hag, fla, mot, che) decreased significantly at 40 degrees C. However, in the ftsI730 mutant at the nonpermissive temperature, or in penicillin G treated wild-type cells, cell division was blocked but formation of flagella continued [18].
  • Captopril significantly blunted the rise in PRA and AII, while indomethacin blocked the rise in PGI2 and TxB2 [11].

Regulatory relationships of fliM

  • Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli has identified fliG and fliM as genes in which mutations occur that allele specifically suppress cheY mutations, indicating interactions among these gene products [19].

Other interactions of fliM

  • There were two possible initiation codons (ATG) for motD translation, the first of which overlapped with the termination codon of the upstream gene, flaAII (fliN) [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fliM

  • RT-PCR analysis indicated that the chemotaxis genes and the upstream flagellar gene flaA constitute an operon [20].
  • An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR [21].
  • The Borrelia burgdorferi 37-kilodalton immunoblot band (P37) used in serodiagnosis of early lyme disease is the flaA gene product [22].
  • Subjects were assigned to 4 vaccination groups: groups AI, AII, and AIII received intranasal influenza vaccine from batches that differed in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase strains used, and group B received intramuscular virosomal subunit vaccine [23].
  • Captopril may benefit vital organ and tissue perfusion by inhibiting AII formation [24].


  1. Sequence of the flaA (cheC) locus of Escherichia coli and discovery of a new gene. Kuo, S.C., Koshland, D.E. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis gene encoding a flagellar switch protein. Zuberi, A.R., Bischoff, D.S., Ordal, G.W. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus FlaJ, a homologue of FliS, is required for production of a flagellin. Stewart, B.J., McCarter, L.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification and molecular characterization of two tandemly located flagellin genes from Aeromonas salmonicida A449. Umelo, E., Trust, T.J. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular characterization of the Treponema denticola fliQ region. Stamm, L.V., Bergen, H.L. DNA Seq. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Co-ordination of legionella pneumophila virulence with entry into stationary phase by ppGpp. Hammer, B.K., Swanson, M.S. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification and characterization of FliY, a novel component of the Bacillus subtilis flagellar switch complex. Bischoff, D.S., Ordal, G.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The N terminus of the flagellar switch protein, FliM, is the binding domain for the chemotactic response regulator, CheY. Bren, A., Eisenbach, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression in Escherichia coli of the 37-kilodalton endoflagellar sheath protein of Treponema pallidum by use of the polymerase chain reaction and a T7 expression system. Isaacs, R.D., Radolf, J.D. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and sequence analysis of flaA, a gene encoding a Spirochaeta aurantia flagellar filament surface antigen. Brahamsha, B., Greenberg, E.P. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of angiotensin II in neonatal sepsis. Dunn, C.W., Horton, J.W. Circ. Shock (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. DNA sequence analysis, gene product identification, and localization of flagellar motor components of Escherichia coli. Malakooti, J., Komeda, Y., Matsumura, P. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Early Caulobacter crescentus genes fliL and fliM are required for flagellar gene expression and normal cell division. Yu, J., Shapiro, L. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Shaping and moving a spiroplasma. Trachtenberg, S. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Functional characterization of human recombinant apolipoprotein AIV produced in Escherichia coli. Duverger, N., Murry-Brelier, A., Latta, M., Reboul, S., Castro, G., Mayaux, J.F., Fruchart, J.C., Taylor, J.M., Steinmetz, A., Denèfle, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Purification of form AI and AII DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from rat-liver nucleoli using low-ionic-strength extraction conditions. Coupar, B.E., Chesterton, C.J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of the homologous recombination in Helicobacter pylori. Pyndiah, S., Ménard, A., Zerbib, F., Mégraud, F. Helicobacter (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. A cell division regulatory mechanism controls the flagellar regulon in Escherichia coli. Nishimura, A., Hirota, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. A chemotactic signaling surface on CheY defined by suppressors of flagellar switch mutations. Roman, S.J., Meyers, M., Volz, K., Matsumura, P. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular characterization of a flagellar/chemotaxis operon in the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Ge, Y., Charon, N.W. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction. Oyofo, B.A., Thornton, S.A., Burr, D.H., Trust, T.J., Pavlovskis, O.R., Guerry, P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. The Borrelia burgdorferi 37-kilodalton immunoblot band (P37) used in serodiagnosis of early lyme disease is the flaA gene product. Gilmore, R.D., Murphree, R.L., James, A.M., Sullivan, S.A., Johnson, B.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. An open-label comparison of the immunogenicity and tolerability of intranasal and intramuscular formulations of virosomal influenza vaccine in healthy adults. de, B., Zanasi, A., Ragusa, S., Glück, R., Herzog, C. Clinical therapeutics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of captopril on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in awake endotoxemic Yucatan minipigs. Fettman, M.J., Hand, M.S., Chandrasena, L.G., Cleek, J.L., Mason, R.A., Brooks, P.A., Phillips, R.W. Circ. Shock (1984) [Pubmed]
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