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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

South America

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Disease relevance of South America


High impact information on South America

  • At both millennial and orbital timescales, cold sea surface temperatures in the high-latitude North Atlantic were coeval with wet conditions in tropical South America, suggesting a common forcing [6].
  • Titanium and iron concentration data from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, off the Venezuelan coast, can be used to infer variations in the hydrological cycle over northern South America during the past 14,000 years with subdecadal resolution [7].
  • Although the use of free cocaine base is rising around the world, this is the first report of a nationwide medical epidemic due almost exclusively to this form of the drug, although similar problems are reported with smoking coca paste in South America [8].
  • The geographic structure of Y-chromosome variability has been analyzed in native populations of South America, through use of the high-frequency Native American haplogroup defined by the DYS199-T allele and six Y-chromosome-linked microsatellites (DYS19, DYS389A, DYS389B, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS393), analyzed in 236 individuals [9].
  • Further we found a previously undescribed CQR phenotype to be associated with the SVMNT haplotype from PNG and South America. This CQR phenotype is significantly less responsive to verapamil chemosensitization compared with the effect associated with the CVIET haplotype [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of South America


Biological context of South America

  • Autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome diversity in Amerinds: pre- and post-Columbian patterns of gene flow in South America [16].
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Among 415 individuals, from four continents (Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia), studied for exon 6 and exon 7 sequences, we selected 46 individuals (of respective phenotypes O [39], AB [3], B [3], or A [1]) for sequencing 1800-bp amplicons spanning exon 6, intron 6, and exon 7 [17].
  • Global expansion of C4 biomass is recorded in the diets of mammals from Asia, Africa, North America, and South America during the interval from about 8 to 5 Ma [18].
  • A modern Caribbean clade consisting of four distinct lineages has arisen, comprised of isolates from Caribbean islands and nearby regions of South America. This clade is defined by three amino acid substitutions in the E (aa 163 and 351) and NS1 (aa 52) proteins [19].
  • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been recognized increasingly as a significant public health problem in South America since Andes virus was first discovered in Argentina [20].

Anatomical context of South America

  • The new compounds showed better drug-resistant reversing activity in chloroquine-resistant than in mefloquine-resistant cell lines and were generally more effective against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum isolates from Southeast Asian (W2 and TM91C235) than those from South America (PC49 and RCS) [21].
  • However, gp45 B-cell epitopes are highly polymorphic among B. bigemina strains isolated from different geographical locations within North and South America. The molecular basis for this polymorphism was investigated using the JG-29 biological clone of a Mexico strain of B. bigemina and comparison with the Puerto Rico, St [22].
  • Forty-two flavonoids and a stilbene (pinosylvin) were identified in the leaf exudates of 11 temperate species of Nothofagus from South America, Australia and New Zealand. The flavonoid profiles demonstrate significant taxonomic value at the subgeneric level [23].
  • In conclusion, the present work indicates that it is possible to evaluate the ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK) activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of a freshwater fish largely distributed in South America. Moreover, Pb2+, an important environmental pollutant may activate in vitro and in vivo ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK) enzymes [24].

Associations of South America with chemical compounds


Gene context of South America

  • Polymorphisms and inferred haplotypes at CYP11B loci were studied in two independent populations from Europe (n = 100) and South America (n = 99) [30].
  • MSX1 and TGFB3 contribute to clefting in South America [31].
  • In summary, we describe and validate a simple PCR-based system for typing vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles of H. pylori and show that this system correctly identifies the signal and midregion types of vacA in 77 strains from Asia and North and South America [32].
  • The same major mutation accounted for 48% of the mutations among CHH patients from other parts of Europe, North and South America, the Near East, and Australia. In the non-Finnish CHH families, the A70G mutation segregated with the same major haplotype, although shorter, as in most of the Finnish families [33].
  • DESIGN: We searched for GHRHR mutations in a new family with IGHD from a third continent (South America) and found the affected individuals to be homozygous for the same L144H change [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of South America

  • To assess caffeine intake, 10% of the mothers were reinterviewed at their households and samples of reported information on drip coffee and maté (a caffeine-containing drink widely used in South America) were collected and sent to the laboratory for caffeine determination through liquid chromatography [35].
  • Comparative performances of enzyme-linked immunosorbent, western blot, and polymerase chain reaction assays for human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection that is endemic among Indians of the Gran Chaco region of South America [36].
  • Between 1983 and 1988, subgroups and serotypes were determined for 907 of 1,084 clinical specimens of rotaviruses collected in various countries of Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Enhanced enzyme immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies specific for rotavirus proteins VP6 and VP7 were used [37].
  • The polymorphism of Gc (group-specific components) has been investigated for a series of 3,160 individual samples from 11 Mongoloid populations in Asia and North and South America by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gels [38].
  • BACKGROUND: and Aims The four cultivated Erythroxylum taxa (E. coca var. coca, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense, E. coca var. ipadu and E. novogranatense var. truxillense) are indigenous to the Andean region of South America and have been cultivated for folk-medicine and, within the last century, for illicit cocaine production [39].


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  2. Antimalarial drugs. An update. Warhurst, D.C. Drugs (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream isolates from seven countries: dominance and widespread prevalence of SHV- and CTX-M-type beta-lactamases. Paterson, D.L., Hujer, K.M., Hujer, A.M., Yeiser, B., Bonomo, M.D., Rice, L.B., Bonomo, R.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities of flavonoids and their analogues: in vitro, in vivo, structure-activity relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies. Tasdemir, D., Kaiser, M., Brun, R., Yardley, V., Schmidt, T.J., Tosun, F., Rüedi, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Failure of combined chloroquine and high-dose primaquine therapy for Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in Guyana, South America. Phillips, E.J., Keystone, J.S., Kain, K.C. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano. Baker, P.A., Rigsby, C.A., Seltzer, G.O., Fritz, S.C., Lowenstein, T.K., Bacher, N.P., Veliz, C. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Southward migration of the intertropical convergence zone through the Holocene. Haug, G.H., Hughen, K.A., Sigman, D.M., Peterson, L.C., Röhl, U. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Epidemic free-base cocaine abuse. Case study from the Bahamas. Jekel, J.F., Allen, D.F., Podlewski, H., Clarke, N., Dean-Patterson, S., Cartwright, P. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic differentiation in South Amerindians is related to environmental and cultural diversity: evidence from the Y chromosome. Tarazona-Santos, E., Carvalho-Silva, D.R., Pettener, D., Luiselli, D., De Stefano, G.F., Labarga, C.M., Rickards, O., Tyler-Smith, C., Pena, S.D., Santos, F.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Evolution of a unique Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance phenotype in association with pfcrt polymorphism in Papua New Guinea and South America. Mehlotra, R.K., Fujioka, H., Roepe, P.D., Janneh, O., Ursos, L.M., Jacobs-Lorena, V., McNamara, D.T., Bockarie, M.J., Kazura, J.W., Kyle, D.E., Fidock, D.A., Zimmerman, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. First report of infection with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in South America. Ribeiro, A., Dias, C., Silva-Carvalho, M.C., Berquó, L., Ferreira, F.A., Santos, R.N., Ferreira-Carvalho, B.T., Figueiredo, A.M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Hospital resource use and cost of treatment with linezolid versus teicoplanin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections among hospitalized patients from South America and Mexico: results from a multicenter trial. López, H., Li, J.Z., Balan, D.A., Willke, R.J., Rittenhouse, B.E., Mozaffari, E., Vidal, G., Zitto, T., Tang, T. Clinical therapeutics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Infantile sialic acid storage disease: report of the first case in South America. Utagawa, C.Y., Sugayama, S.M., Ribeiro, E.M., Bertola, D.R., Baba, E.R., Burin, M.G., Lewis, E., Coelho, H.C., Fensom, A.H., Marques-Dias, M.J., Gonzales, C.H., Kim, C.A., Giugliani, R. Clin. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Overview of clinical trials with urapidil. Schook, C.E., Radtke, H., Wurst, W., Thieme, G. Am. J. Cardiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. The clinical impact of aluminium overload in renal failure. Cannata-Andía, J.B., Fernández-Martín, J.L. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Autosomal, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome diversity in Amerinds: pre- and post-Columbian patterns of gene flow in South America. Mesa, N.R., Mondragón, M.C., Soto, I.D., Parra, M.V., Duque, C., Ortíz-Barrientos, D., García, L.F., Velez, I.D., Bravo, M.L., Múnera, J.G., Bedoya, G., Bortolini, M.C., Ruiz-Linares, A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolution of the O alleles of the human ABO blood group gene. Roubinet, F., Despiau, S., Calafell, F., Jin, F., Bertranpetit, J., Saitou, N., Blancher, A., Bertanpetit, J. Transfusion (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Carbon dioxide starvation, the development of C4 ecosystems, and mammalian evolution. Cerling, T.E., Ehleringer, J.R., Harris, J.M. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular evolution and phylogeny of dengue type 4 virus in the Caribbean. Foster, J.E., Bennett, S.N., Vaughan, H., Vorndam, V., McMillan, W.O., Carrington, C.V. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of the M RNA segment of Andes virus and analysis of the variability of the termini of the virus S, M and L RNA segments. Padula, P.J., Sanchez, A.J., Edelstein, A., Nichol, S.T. J. Gen. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of new chemosensitizers in multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Guan, J., Kyle, D.E., Gerena, L., Zhang, Q., Milhous, W.K., Lin, A.J. J. Med. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular basis for variable expression of merozoite surface antigen gp45 among American isolates of Babesia bigemina. Fisher, T.G., McElwain, T.F., Palmer, G.H. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Taxonomic significance of flavonoid variation in temperate species of Nothofagus. Wollenweber, E., Stevens, J.F., Dörr, M., Rozefelds, A.C. Phytochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK) by lead in the cerebellum of Brazilian catfish Rhamdia quelen. Leal, R.B., Ribeiro, S.J., Posser, T., Cordova, F.M., Rigon, A.P., Zaniboni Filho, E., Bainy, A.C. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Breast cancer: a global perspective. Collyar, D.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Anticholinergic poisoning associated with herbal tea. Hsu, C.K., Leo, P., Shastry, D., Meggs, W., Weisman, R., Hoffman, R.S. Arch. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America. Roberts, D.R., Laughlin, L.L., Hsheih, P., Legters, L.J. Emerging Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of aldosterone secretion during hypoxemia at sea level and moderately high altitude. Ramirez, G., Bittle, P.A., Hammond, M., Ayers, C.W., Dietz, J.R., Colice, G.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. pfcrt Allelic types with two novel amino acid mutations in chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Philippines. Chen, N., Kyle, D.E., Pasay, C., Fowler, E.V., Baker, J., Peters, J.M., Cheng, Q. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. CYP11B2-CYP11B1 haplotypes associated with decreased 11 beta-hydroxylase activity. Ganapathipillai, S., Laval, G., Hoffmann, I.S., Castejon, A.M., Nicod, J., Dick, B., Frey, F.J., Frey, B.M., Cubeddu, L.X., Ferrari, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. MSX1 and TGFB3 contribute to clefting in South America. Vieira, A.R., Orioli, I.M., Castilla, E.E., Cooper, M.E., Marazita, M.L., Murray, J.C. J. Dent. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Simple and accurate PCR-based system for typing vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Atherton, J.C., Cover, T.L., Twells, R.J., Morales, M.R., Hawkey, C.J., Blaser, M.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Worldwide mutation spectrum in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: ancient founder origin of the major70A-->G mutation of the untranslated RMRP. Ridanpää, M., Sistonen, P., Rockas, S., Rimoin, D.L., Mäkitie, O., Kaitila, I. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Detection of a recurring mutation in the human growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor gene. Salvatori, R., Aguiar-Oliveira, M.H., Monte, L.V., Hedges, L., Santos, N.L., Pereira, R.M., Phillips, J.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Caffeine intake and low birth weight: a population-based case-control study. Santos, I.S., Victora, C.G., Huttly, S., Carvalhal, J.B. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Comparative performances of enzyme-linked immunosorbent, western blot, and polymerase chain reaction assays for human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection that is endemic among Indians of the Gran Chaco region of South America. Poiesz, B.J., Dube, S., Jones, B., Bryz-Gornia, V., Dean, M.T., Spicer, T., Hengst, J., Sayre, K., Esteban, E., Ferrer, J.F. Transfusion (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Temporal and geographical distributions of human rotavirus serotypes, 1983 to 1988. Beards, G.M., Desselberger, U., Flewett, T.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. The distribution of Gc subtypes among the mongoloid populations. Matsumoto, H., Matsui, K., Ishida, N., Ohkura, K., Teng, Y.S. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Inter- and intra-specific variation among five Erythroxylum taxa assessed by AFLP. Johnson, E.L., Zhang, D., Emche, S.D. Ann. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
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